Atmosphere over Northern Eurasia
Atmosphere Composition Investigations Over the Northern Eurasia Using the Mobile Carriage-Laboratory
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Rudneva V Ya
Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russia, Moscow
- Scientific Research Institute of Rail Transport, Russia, Moscow\nKarpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russia, Moscow
- University of Helsinki, Finland, Helsinki\nMax-Planck Society / Max-Plank-Institute fur Biogeochemie, Germany, Jena\nMax-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Germany, Mainz
Project summaryThe goal of the Project is continuation and expansion of monitoring the atmosphere and ecosystems over Eurasia. In recent years, the monitoring has been supported by the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) (the TROICA project no. 1235), Russian Academy of Sciences, and Max Planck Scientific Society (Agreement of May 29, 2001, Project CCCOLD).
The project plans atmospheric measurements of gas and aerosol components and of meteorological, radiative, and photochemical characteristics. The technical basis of the project is the railroad mobile laboratory designed by the Russian Research Institute of Rail Transportation in cooperation with the Institute of Atmospheric Physics. The mobile laboratory should be equipped with modern scientific instrumentation for comprehensive studies of the atmosphere: gas and aerosol analyzers, gas chromatographs, instruments for measurements of radiative and meteorological parameters, instruments for remote sensing, navigation devices, samplers and analyzers of air, water, soil, and vegetation, and means for the express analysis and data transmission. The Project includes 6 long-route expeditions, including 4 latitudinal and 2 meridional ones, based on this mobile laboratory. These expeditions will allow obtaining data on the spatial distribution, sources, and transport of principal greenhouse gases and atmospheric pollutants over most regions of Russia. The planned routes allow the most effective use of the observational data of the scientific stations functioning stationary on the territory of the Kola Peninsula, city of Moscow, Moscow Region, North Caucasus, and Siberia. The results of the measurements of the mobile laboratory will be correlated with those of instrumentation installed at the high-rise support that is now being assembled in central Siberia about 500 km to the north of the city of Krasnoyarsk. To form a single measuring system and to have a possibility for correlation of all measuring instruments to each other, onboard measurements from a river-craft plying voyages between Krasnoyarsk and the high-rise support are planned.
Realization of the Project will allow us the following: (1) to clarify the spatial distribution and temporal variability of the atmospheric gaseous and aerosol pollutants influencing the atmospheric ozone layer and climatic warming; (2) to obtain a comprehensive information on emissions of greenhouse, ozone-destructive, and other reactive gases over the Russian territory; (3) to study the regional (polluting plumes from cities, large-scale enterprises, etc.) and continental (polluting flows from central Europe to Siberia, from the continent to the northern area of the Pacific Ocean, etc.) transport of atmospheric pollutants; (4) to study the oxidative ability of the atmosphere, the possibility of formation of toxic substances, such as chloro-acetic acids, the atmospheric pollution effect on the ecosystems of remote regions, and the inverse effect of ecosystems on the balance of atmospheric greenhouse gases.
An important component of the Project is separation of the anthropogenic sources of emissions of greenhouse gases, volatile organic compounds, and aerosol from the natural ones. The performance of the chemical and isotopic analyses of air and aerosol samples will allow us to make clear the origin of methane and unsaturated hydrocarbons, including halogenated hydrocarbons, in surface air over different regions of Eurasia and also to estimate the effect of the vast forestlands, marshlands, industrial zones, and regions of mining on the atmospheric chemistry. In the course of the river-craft expeditions, vegetation, water, and soil will be sampled for subsequent analysis for the content of toxic chlorinated compounds and the effect of the pollutants on the state of ecosystems will be estimated. Such studies are unique in both scientific and environmental contexts, because they allow controlling the effectiveness of international conventions on environmental protection over the vast territory of the Eurasian continent.
The observational data will be analyzed, generalized, and interpreted on the basis of modern photochemical, climatical, and biogeochemical models. This work will allow description of the present state of the ecosystems over northern Eurasia and prediction of the further tendencies.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.