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Non-toxic combustion chamber

#3186


Theoretical Investigation and Experimental Development of Methods of Building up Non-Toxic Combustion Chamber of Gas-Turbine Engine with Low Soot Formation in Combustion Liner

Tech Area / Field

  • SAT-OTH/Other/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
13.01.2005

Completion date
09.10.2009

Senior Project Manager
Ryzhova T B

Leading Institute
MAI (Moscow Aircraft Institute), Russia, Moscow

Collaborators

  • JAXA / Aeronautical Environment Technology Center, Japan, Tokyo

Project summary

Introduction
Today the requirements to the emission level of gas-turbine engines, especially in respect of NOx emission, become more and more strict. Therefore there is a need in special technologies of combustion organization in combustion chambers, efficient in terms of emission reduction under high-temperature conditions.
In the present work it is suggested to use in a low-emission combustion chamber so called micro-modules providing combustion of a lean homogenous mixture. The primary goal of the proposed project is development of recommendations on methods of development of pollutant-free high-temperature combustion chambers of gas-turbine engines. It known that at strong flow swirling in a burner, which leads to generation of developed circulation flows behind the burner’s exit section, a strong increase in nitrogen oxide emissions takes place. Therefore further works have to be aimed at the direct-flow scheme (where there is no large reverse-flow zone that provides stabilization of combustion) which requires enhancement of combustion stabilization and development of special ignition and combustion maintenance systems.
Main results of the works performed by the scientists of the Moscow Aviation Institute under this theme are given in the following publications:
1. Rutovskiy V.B., Kravchenko I.V. Experimental investigation of the burning processes in combustion cambers of the gas-turbine engine included into the structure of power plant of hypersonic aircraft. 51st International Astronautical Congress, October 2-6, 2000, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, IAF-00-S.5.08.
2. Rutovskiy V.B., Kravchenko I.V. Experimental investigation of front devices with double swirlers for perspective combustors. Fifteenth International Symposium on Airbreathing Engines. September 2-7, 2001, Bangalore, India. ISABE 2001 – 1207.
3. Rutovskiy V.B., Kravchenko I.V., Khokhlov A.V. The effect of fuel redistribution in a combustion chamber on NOx formation. 52st International Astronautical Congress, October 1-5, 2001, Toulouse, France. IAF-01-IAF.S.5.07.
4. Rutovskiy V.B., Kravchenko I.V., Khokhlov A.V. The numerical method of 3D temperature calculation in the combustion chamber of gas-turbine engines. Sixteenth National Heat and Mass Transfer Conference and Fifth ISHMT/ASME heat and Mass Transfer Conference. January 3-5, 2002, Calcuta, India, HMT-2001-C128, hh. 991-995.
5. Rutovskiy V.B., Kravchenko I.V., Khokhlov A.V. Definition of Blow-Out Characteristics of an Experimental Model Combustion Chamber 6th International Symposium “Propulsion for Space Transportation of the XXIst century, France, Mai 13 - 18, 2002.
Expected Results and their Application
The proposed work is an applied study.
Modernization of a mathematical model based on a wide application of modern CCD (Computational Combustion Dynamics) methods will enable to calculate all the necessary characteristics of combustion chambers of the proposed schemes.
Obtained experimental characteristics of a micro-module with pneumatic nozzles will be a basis of the scientific and technical reserve providing development of an advanced low-toxic multi-module combustion chamber using partial homogenization of a fuel-air mixture.
One of the results of this work will be development and testing of a model combustion chamber which uses new design solutions and has a low level of pollutants and soot formation at high performance.
Analytical and experimental results of this work may be used as recommendations by aviation and space companies while developing configurations of advanced combustion chambers of gas-turbine engines.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives
The most of the project collaborators earlier worked in the field of launch vehicle development.
While designing an aircraft power plant, one should solve the problem of its ecological influence on the earth’s atmosphere. In order to satisfy new ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) standards concerning influence on the earth’s atmosphere, combustion chambers of advanced engines should have about three times lower NOx emission comparing to modern combustion chambers. Therefore development, investigation and application of efficient methods of reduction of waste gases toxicity in gas-turbine engines and soot formation that does not deteriorate energy and economic characteristics is one of today’s most important ecological tasks.
Scope of Activities
The present work includes:
  • Modernization of a modern mathematical model based on improved computational methods for a number of critical areas in a combustion chamber. This model enables to perform a theoretic investigation of an operation process in the combustion chamber and its inpidual elements.
  • Experimental investigation of characteristics of the developed and manufactured pneumatic nozzle of a new scheme with improved atomization characteristics.
  • Experimental investigation of characteristics of the developed and manufactured micro-module, which determine parameters that influence a turbulent combustion speed of the fuel-air mixture.
  • Experimental investigation of the developed and manufactured model combustion chamber.
  • Drawing-up recommendations on organization of stable combustion in the low-toxic combustion chamber of selected scheme on the basis of performed computational and experimental investigations.
  • Drawing-up recommendations on reduction of NOx emission and soot formation in the combustion chamber of selected scheme on the basis of complex computation of the combustion process.
Role of Foreign Collaborators
The proposed project suggests the following cooperation with the Collaborator (SNECMA, France):
France):
  • carrying out joint working seminars;
  • exchanging information under the project;
  • commenting technical reports;
  • assisting the parts of the project in attending international meetings.
Technical Approach and Methodology
To achieve the primary goals of the project, computational and theoretical methods of investigation of the operation process in combustion chambers of the considered schemes and experimental methods of investigation of the operation process in a model combustion chamber and its inpidual elements.
Mathematical computational model of combustion chamber of a gas-turbine engine is built on the basis of a developed computational technique for thermal effects in a combustion chamber.
The use of modern computational programs for chemically-reacting flows can help to reduce the development cost of combustion chamber owing to more accurate selection of its configuration, which enables to reduce the number of modifications needed for the achievement of the combustion chamber characteristics.
Obtained experimental data is used as semi-empirical correlations of relationships laid in a mathematical model.
In this work a model combustion chamber and its main elements will be experimentally tested at a firing test facility.
Structure of the combustion chamber has been significantly changed, which makes it different from a traditional one. As a possible scheme of a low-toxic combustion chamber enabling to reduce concentration of nitrogen oxides in combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels up to EINOx ≈ 5 g/kg, a scheme of a combustion chamber with micro-modules placed in a head section of the combustion chamber.
On the basis of experimental investigations of the operation process of the pneumatic nozzles and module recommendations on selection of their geometry and main parameters will be elaborated. In the model combustion chamber modules with pneumatic nozzles having optimal configuration will be used.
Experimental investigations of the developed combustion chamber will enable to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed mathematical model and program for computing main parameters of the combustion chamber.


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