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Risk Management accumulation of radionuclides and chemical pollution

#T-2149


Risk Assessment and Risk Management of accumulation of radionuclides and chemical pollution in seasonal snow and glaciers and their transportation by waterways

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
  • ENV-DMT/Dangerous Materials Transportation /Environment
  • ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
08.09.2014

Leading Institute
Tajik National University, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Collaborators

  • Nihon University / Department of Geosystem Sciences, Japan, Tokyo

Project summary

The project aim. Determination of the degree of accumulation of radionuclides and chemical elements in glaciers and the probability of their inflows to the rivers
Current status
Represents an important interest and scientific research value storage capacity of glaciers against atmospheric aerosols, fine particulate chemical elements and compounds. We carried out a study of the chemical composition formed from glaciers Zarafshan, Rossinch, Dekhavz and Trough Zarafshan River Basin water runoff, and seasonal snow showed that the studied glaciers dominated by the presence of anions SO42-, Cl- and cations Ca2 + and Mg2 +, and a number of isotopes. These results can be explained by the assumption of the stratospheric aerosol layer consisting of tiny droplets of sulfuric acid, which were formulated in the early 60-ies of the last century. These ideas about the aerosol layer allowed us to estimate the aerosol concentration in the stratosphere by analyzing ice cores from the well droning Mound Land in West Antarctica and to develop a methodology to quantify the power of volcanic eruptions in the past to change the conductivity and sulphate ion SO42- in the layers of ice cores. Analyzing the content of heavy metals and their distribution in fresh solid precipitation on the glaciers of the southern slope of Mount Elbrus authors [1] concluded that heavy metals are brought in the composition of the microparticles range transport by air currents.
In the present project by simultaneous monitoring will be investigated the content of radionuclides, heavy metals, chemical elements and compounds in the seasonal snow, glaciers, precipitation in the Zarafshan River Basin. Comparison of these results with their value in the water flow of rivers feeding of these glaciers will be established mechanisms and regularities of the transport and distribution of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemical compounds by water flows.
Tasks of the project:
- analysis archival meteorological, hydrological, glaciological and geological information of the Zeravshan River Basin;
- investigation of isotope composition of an atmospheric precipitation at various heights (altitude of sea levels);
- monitoring of isotope composition of the rivers;
- sampling of glaciers for an assessment of gross isotope composition of ice;
- monitoring chemical elements in seasonal snow, glaciers and rivers;
- formulation of the relevant proposals on management of water resources and an assessment the potential risks connected with pollution of natural ecosystems by chemical compounds, heavy metals and radionuclides for operating bodies and the commercial organizations in Tajikistan and other countries of the region.
Influence of the project on progress in the field. After completion of planned researches will be created scientifically reasonable conceptual and quantitative balance-dynamic models of accumulation of the radionuclides, heavy metals and chemical pollution on the Mountain glaciers, seasonal snows and their transportation and distribution to the components of ecosystems by water flows.
The project participant’s competence to the specified area. Implementation of the project will be carried out at of the Republic of Tajikistan and in the glaciation area of the Zeravshan River Basins. The employees of the project have a wide experience in researches of glaciers, monitoring of meteorological and hydrological condition of Mountain regions and in hydrochemical and isotope.
Expected Results and Their Application
- assessment of the content of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemical compounds in seasonal snow and river basin glaciers Zeravshan;
- conceptual and quantitative balance and dynamic models of the accumulation of the radionuclides and chemical pollution and their transportation by river drain in Mountain of the Republic of Tajikistan;
- development of recommendations about decrease in risk of distribution of radionuclides, chemical pollutants waterway;
- forecast of the atmosphere pollution by chemical compounds by monitoring of chemical components of precipitation;
- provided the corresponding quantitative estimates for planning of future activity in areas of risk management of glaciers and river drain by pollution.
Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives
The planned to realization main tasks of the project such as the analysis of primary and archival information, development of conceptual methods of a quantitative assessment of a risk connected by pollution of natural components of ecosystem by pollution and are focused on the solution of problems of environmental protection and economic security of the population.
The present project correspond to following purposes and tasks of ISTC such as:
• Gives to weapon scientists opportunities for reorientation of the abilities to peace activity.
• Problems of an assessment of conditions of formation of a superficial drain and the risks connected with its wrong assessment represent essential scientific interest for not only Tajikistan and Central Asia countries but also for the world scientific community, public institutions and the commercial organizations operating in, the regions characterized by similar environmental problems. The proof of it is a significant amount of publications in scientific magazines and materials of the international scientific conferences devoted to the matter.
• Developed during implementation of the project methods of an assessment, decrease and/or compensation of technological and natural hazards will allow to develop optimum, reasonable, from the point of view of market economy, approaches to tactics of actions on decrease or elimination of consequences of global climate changes.
• Promotes the solution of national and international legal problems.
Volume of work:
- analysis archival meteorological, hydrological, glaciological and geological information of the Zeravshan River Basin;
- investigation of isotope composition of an atmospheric precipitation at various heights (altitude of sea levels);
- monitoring of isotope composition of the rivers;
- sampling of glaciers for an assessment of gross isotope composition of ice;
- monitoring chemical elements in seasonal snow, glaciers and rivers;
- formulation of the relevant proposals on management of water resources and an assessment the potential risks connected with pollution of natural ecosystems by chemical compounds, heavy metals and radionuclides for operating bodies and the commercial organizations in Tajikistan and other countries of the region.
Role of Foreign Collaborators/Partners
Collaborator will represent available data on a project theme, to make comments on annual reports, to give the right to use available models for description of hydrological, meteorological processes. Also to promote the organization and carrying out of training of the personnel of TNU, to assist participants of the project in visiting of the international meetings and also in the organization and carrying out of joint symposiums and working seminars.
Technical approach and methodology
The methodology of the project bases on close coordination of theoretical and experimental works, mathematical modeling and use of standard recommendations for mountain territories hydrochemistry assessment. The modern devices and techniques for analytical measurements and "blind" control of tests will be used. The methods of probability theory and mathematical statistics will be applied to interpretation of results of measurements and for modeling original and commercial computer programs will be used.


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