Gasless Combustion of Solid Fuel Mixtures
Investigation of the Macrokinetics and Energy of Self-Oscillatory Processes of Gasless Combustion of Solid Fuel Mixtures Proposed for the Design of Short-Term Thermal and Electrical Sources
Tech Area / Field
- NNE-MEC/Miscellaneous Energy Conversion/Non-Nuclear Energy
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Material Science, Russia, Moscow reg., Chernogolovka
- VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Hôpital Saint-Antoine, France, Paris
Project summaryProject Objective
The objectives of the Project are the creation of a multifunctional model of compact gasless and ecologically safe heating source of short-term action based on the phenomenon of' solid flame' and the design of autonomous current-generating devices with the systems of direct conversion of thermal energy.
The 1st year investigations of the specific features of self-oscillatory combustion in solid-phase exothermic systems and production of the materials and compounds necessary for the Project fulfillment by the method of self-propagating high-tempera-ture synthesis will be based on the experimental and theoretical results obtained by me scientists of both participating institutions.
The results obtained at the 1st stage of the activities will be further used in working out the major scientific concepts, which will help to determining the range of the advanced materials and methods of their production and outlining the general scope of construction and technological problems. The R&D activities are supposed to result in the creation of powerful models of short-term multipurpose autonomous sources of thermal and electrical energy.
The Project activities are expected to result in the creation of the first powerful compact autonomous thermal sources of short-term action based on 'solid flames'. The main operation cycles in such thermal sources are solid-phase processes, since the fuel, the oxidant and the combustion products are solids. The preliminary experimental studies and calculations show that the specific heat flows may exceed 50 Wt/cm2 i.e. be close to the values characteristic of the fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The temperature at the thermal source shell may be varied within 1000-3000 К at the thermal pulse duration from 20-30 to 2-3 s at the initial and final values, respectively. The thermal sources based on 'solid flame' are ecologically safe. They are characterized by a unique peculiarity of non-consuming and non-evolving any gases but the air components adsorbed under ambient conditions. The combustion products are chemically inert and extremely water-resistant compounds.
Heat released by autonomous thermal sources can be directly used for various purposes:
- heating of gases, liquids, solids, materials, products, construction units etc.;
- fusion of electrolytes in various electrochemical devices;
- heating of the memory-shape alloys in special molds;
- generation of'metallic' clouds at space experiments;
- gas generation inclosing pure gases of vast nomenclature;
- gas-generating devices for the liquid removal from one volume to an-other, in particular, for blowing-through flooded ballast reservoirs;
- sources of electromagnetic radiation, in particular, for pumping of the lasers, for IR signal generation etc.;
- thermal readers with direct switch-on of emergency systems, e.g. in atomic reactors.
Thermal energy evolved by autonomous heating elements can be converted to electrical pulses with the aid of miniature thermoelectric generators (TEG) and thermion converters. The results of the preliminary experiments and calculations showed that at 1000-1800 К on the shell, the electrical pulses of the specific power up to 1 Wt/cm2 and the outgoing voltage of 2 V can be generated by the thermal source-TEG system.
The participating teams appreciate the interest to the problems of the present Project and are ready to discuss any ways of further cooperation, in particular, possible application of the results obtained.
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