Computational Models of Liquid Mediums in Human organism
Development of the Program Package for Numerical Simulation of Human Organism’s Systems of Circulation, Respiration, Digestion and Water Balance with Consideration of Their Interaction and Influence of External Factors
Tech Area / Field
- INF-SOF/Software/Information and Communications
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Isakov S V
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Russia, Moscow reg., Dolgoprudny
- VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) / Department of Mechanical Engineering and Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health, USA, MA, Cambridge\nGeorgia Institute of Technology, USA, GA, Atlanta
Project summaryThe purpose of the proposed project consists in the creation of computational models for basic human organism functional systems, with their interaction and external influences taking into account. The main focus will be made on physical processes (such as wave transmission, hydrodynamic phenomena, transport of chemical substances) taking place in the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems of an organism. The necessity of building and uniting simulation models of these systems is conditioned by their interaction in providing many essential organism functions, particularly in water balance and in substances transport. As a result, the set of models in question will allow to solve a rather wide range of theoretical and practical problems that modern physiology and medicine deal with.
First of all, they are the problems of the forecasting of the various treatment factors’ effects and the problems of the reveal the physiologic (including pathophysiologic) mechanisms of an organism’s response to those factors. In this field, computational experiments are simpler and cheaper than full-scale experiments with real humans and allow to investigate an organism’s responses in wider ranges of environmental conditions, sometimes giving the only way of studying them (in view of ethical and other considerations).
In the field of the human organism simulation there exist three main approaches which can be conventionally referred to as the medical, physiological and mathematical ones. At first, there is an enormous amount of experimental data that give an opportunity to predict the most probable organism’s response to some disturbances using inpidual properties of an organism and conditions to which it is placed. The advantage of medical expert systems, based upon such an approach, lies in the fact that they allow to obtain results close to reality although they don’t consider knotty problems of physiological regulations and intersystem co-operations. But such results usually have too narrow application domain because it’s impossible to put into databases the dependence of an organism’s response upon all its state parameters.
In the second place, by now physiologic imitating models have already become traditional too. Several such models are intended to describe the whole organism due to a large number of built-in empiric dependencies. The main weak spot of imitating models is quite a rough representation of physiological process dynamics and anatomical localization.
In the third place, there exists the certain number of “exact” mathematical models that reflects in details the dynamics of physical processes in an organism. Many of them are spatially distributed and based on human anatomy; but most of them concerns only the tissue or organ level and does not consider the systemic or organism level. Another drawback of the “mathematical” approach (in comparison with the “physiological” one) is the neglecting of regulatory interactions in an organism.
The project in hand has few common points with the first (“medical”) approach but it combines the merits of the second (“physiological”) and the third (“mathematical”) ones. By the reason of the scientific language difference that physiologists and mathematicians speak in, there were not so many attempts to bind imitating models of functional systems with the detailed mathematical (especially space-distributed) analysis of their elements. That’s why the coalescence of the complex physiological approach and up-to-date mathematical methods has great prospects.
The participants of the proposed project have the wide experience either in the numerical methods development or in the simulation of the human circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems. In particular, they created the monotonic grid-characteristic methods for elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic equations solving in multidimensional regions and with irregular grids. These methods were applied to the simulation of surgical attacks on an eye and of substance transport in the whole organism. Models for the computing of chemical agent’ effects upon circulation and respiration were also constructed.
The following results will be achieved during the project execution:
1) spatially distributed models of blood flow and air flow in the circulatory and respiratory systems will be developed; the circulation model will be represented with the two variants: dynamic (for fast and wavelike processes) and quasi-stationary (for processes of longer duration) ones;
2) the models of transfer in the circulatory and respiratory systems will be created;
3) the simulation models of water balance and exchange processes in the digestive system will be built and bound with the quasi-stationary model of substance transport by circulation;
4) the uniting of those models into a software system will be carried out; the potentiality of that system will be exhibited by solving several particular physiological and medical problems.
All the above enables substantially to diminish the gap between science achievements (either mathematical or biomedical) and practice needs. With the results of the proposed project, it is possible to begin the technology development, moreover, the authors of the proposal plans to take part in it together with medical scientists.
When prosecuting the project the recent numerical methods for ordinary and partial differential equations will be used, including the methods invented by the project participants. On the other hand, the analysis of theoretical models existing in human physiology will be fulfilled; those models will be evolved and adjusted with computational algorithms. Simultaneously the literature search of initial data for the models will be accomplished, and then data values will be made more precise by simulation experiments.
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