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Confinement Problem in Quantum Chromodynamics


Two Lines of Attack of the Confinement Problem in Quantum Chromodynamics

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-PFA/Particles, Fields and Accelerator Physics/Physics
  • PHY-SSP/Solid State Physics/Physics

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek


  • California State University, Fresno, USA, CA, Fresno\nChiba University, Japan, Chiba

Project summary

The aim of the Project

Quarks and gluons are highly successful notions, designed to account for a large body of experimental data on subnuclear realm. Many properties of protons and neutrons, the particles forming the nuclei of atoms, can be derived by combining properties of their constituent quarks in an elementary way. Attempts to observe an inpidual isolated quark all failed, however, and a permanent confinement of quarks inside hadrons became the prevailing conjecture. An intense theoretical effort was launched to clarify the confinement mechanism within the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong interactions. Thirty years of theoretical analysis taught us much about this mechanism, yet certain of its fundamental features still hold puzzles and surprises. This Project is a step on the road to gaining a penetrating insight into the situation with the confinement problem, a central QCD problem.

Researchers experience

Dr. Vladimir Dzhunushaliev, Project Manager, has published over 40 papers in quantum field theory, multidimensional gravity, and condensed matter physics. He worked in USA and Germany as a visiting scientist, and has some experience in the international collaborative work. Dr. Boris Kosyakov, Project participant, former nuclear weapons scientist, has published over 20 papers in classical and quantum field theory. Balabanov A., Project participant, former nuclear weapons scientist, has published over 20 papers in the different areas of the theoretical physics.

Expected results

Two approaches to the confinement problem in QCD underlie the Project. The first is based on a widespread belief that the confinement of quarks relates to flux tubes (or strings) between quarks, filled with chromo-electric gauge fields. The second is based on features of exact solutions to the classical Yang-Mills equations, and relates to a new version of `strong gravity’, large-N (classical) limit of the SU(N) Yang-Mills theory, and holography. The first approach is intended to verify that: (i) the SU(3) quantum gauge theory may be approximated by the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory plus some extra terms; (ii) the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with broken symmetry may provide flux tubes between quarks, filled with color fields in an ordered phase; and (iii) condensed matter systems may show nonlinear effects similar to those in QCD. The second approach is intended to search for new exact solutions to the classical Yang-Mills equations with various gauge groups and different sources corresponding to bound quarks. These solutions are assumed to take the form similar to that of solutions of General Relativity, and this suggestion will be comprehensively examined. The analysis of features of these solutions appears to provide an important contribution to a new version of the `strong gravity’. The expected properties of these solutions should elucidate the enigmatic similarity between the large-N limit and the classical limit in QCD. An insight into the origin and the actual role of string-like configurations of gluon fields in QCD is plausible. The reason for the selection of dimension D = 4, realized in the subnuclear realm (as opposed to other dimensions), will be clarified in the course of the Project implementation.

The Project meets the ISTC requirements in the following issues:

a) Promoting the fundamental science development in countries of transitional economy of the Middle Asia region, in particular the Kyrgyz Republic;
b) Providing opportunities for the former weapons scientists of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation to redirect their talents to peaceful activities;
c) Promoting the integration of the former weapons scientists of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation into the international scientific community.

Scope of Activities

A1. Development of an approximate description of the SU (3) quantum Yang-Mills theory, which is accomplished by a reduction of initial degrees of freedom (ABm, B = 1, 2, …, 8) to some SU (2) degrees of freedom (Aam, a = 1, 2, 3) and a scalar field f.

A2. Analysis of solutions to a theory of the Yang-Mills-Higgs type, modeling QCD in the infrared region.

A3. Development of an approximate description of the SU (3) quantum Yang-Mills theory, which is accomplished by a reduction of initial degrees of freedom (ABm, B = 1, 2, …, 8) to degrees of freedom represented by a set of scalar fields.

A4. Comparison of the effective theory implementing the QCD reduction and its counterpart in condensed matter physics (high-temperature superconductivity).

B1 Elaboration of a new version of the `strong gravity’ on the basis of exact solutions to the Yang-Mills-Wong theory with conformal groups of the local gauge symmetry SO (3,3), SO (4,2), and SO (5,1).

B2 Elucidation of meaning of the classical limit as the limit of large number of colors with regard to the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry deformation.

B3 Development of the holographic standpoint of the subnuclear realm. Study of the relation between the holographic classicality of the cold phase in the four-dimensional bulk and the decoherence mechanism, related to superselection rules.

Role of Foreign Collaborators/Partners

The foreign collaborators are leading experts in quantum gauge field theory. Their participation in the Project is of great importance. The role of the foreign collaborators is as follows:

- Exchange of information during project implementation;
- Consultations.

Technical Approach and Methodology

To study of the confinement problem, the central QCD problem, two alternative lines of attack are suggested: (i) a conventional approach implying the string picture of the quark binding, and (ii) an approach based on the analysis of exact retarded solutions to the classical Yang-Mills equations which were found in previous studies by Project participants. To cope with the reduction of gauge degrees of freedom in the stringy picture of the quark confinement, analysis of the large-N (classical) limit of gauge theories, construction of the new version of `strong gravity’, and other relevant tasks, several methods are adopted, which were proposed and developed previously by participants. This methodology has no need of the supercomputer machinery, and, for the most part, is based on analytical calculations.


The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.


ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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