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Monitoring of Water Reservoirs in Armenia

#A-676


Pollution Level Estimation of Water Reservoirs in Armenia Based on the Analysis of Zooplankton. Regional Monitoring and Management

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment
  • BIO-DIV/Biodiversity/Biotechnology
  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
30.01.2001

Completion date
05.09.2006

Senior Project Manager
Rudneva V Ya

Leading Institute
Institute of Molecular Biology, Armenia, Yerevan

Collaborators

  • Universita di Torino, Italy, Torino\nClemson University / Department of Entomology, USA, SC, Clemson\nUniversity of Illinois At Urbana-Champaign / Department of Animal Sciences, USA, IL, Urbana\nNatural History Museum, UK, London\nHumboldt-University, Germany, Berlin\nEnvironmental/Occupatinal Health University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA, PA, Pittsburgh

Project summary

With the deficiency of water resources in the Republic of Armenia, the ecological state of natural waters and their ecosystems has become an especially topical problem. Armenia is a country with little water, which is why the rivers of Armenia play a significant role as sources of water supply for irrigation, hydroelectricity, and recreation. The intensive use of water resources resulted in an increase in the technogenic load and deterioration of water quality in reservoirs, and even to absolute water exhaustion. The deterioration of water quality induces a wide spectrum of epidemiological infectious diseases, and the destruction of aquatic ecosystems and food animals. Therefore the preservation of pure water and aquatic ecosystems is of a paramount significance for Armenia.

The Project aim is the development and enhancement of the economy and an improvement in the quality of life for residents of the Republic by complex monitoring and elaboration of the principles for water system management.


The main tasks of the project are complex monitoring and formation of an ecosystem and water management system that provides for the following:
Task 1. The investigation of biological persity and establishment of species construction of studied zooplankton. Species persity is a good index of the pollution degree of rivers and lakes.
Task 2. Selection of species-indicators as the most important element of ecological monitoring and concrete definition of the conception of a bioindicator for a given region.
Task 3. Genetic monitoring of aquatic organism populations, study of genetic consequences of the effect of chemical pollutants on natural populations.
Task 4. Use of morpho-physiological and biochemical indices for technogenic pollution indication. The task of our investigation is to study biochemical mechanisms of respiration and to analyze the lipid metabolism to reveal changes in the metabolism of hydrobionts and to determine the limits of adaptive reactions.
Task 5. Investigation of reservoir self-cleaning processes, and the dynamics and regularities of changes in this process.
Task 6. Observation and control of pollution level of surface waters by physical and chemical parameters.
Task.7. Elaboration of principles for regional ecological rate setting of anthropogenic impact on nature with regard for biological objects.
Task 8. Prognostication of the state of ecological systems, using mathematical simulation.
Task 9. Elaboration and compilation of a manual on monitoring of water quality and dissemination of ecological knowledge.
Task 10. Formation of a system of optimum water resource management on the basis of the conception of harmonious development of the economy and protection of the natural environment.

The Project is related to both basic and applied investigations.


In accordance with the stages of the project the following results are to be obtained:
a) a database on species persity of the main links in water ecosystems - black flies, chironomids, mollusks, beetles, dragonflies, and protozoa, as well as their connection with water quality,
b) a data bank on species which are indicators of physical, chemical (heavy metals) and radioactive pollution of water reservoirs,
c) data on chromosome aberrations and genetic mutations under the influence of chemical and other pollutants taking place in natural populations and associations, and the definition of the genetic indication of populations,
d) data on morpho-physiological and biochemical indices which are the indicators of technogenic pollution,
e) study of regularities for water self-cleaning processes with the help of protozoa, larvae of Diptera, dragonflies and water mollusks, which will create an opportunity to produce the recommendations on stimulation of these processes,
f) data bank of water quality indices for different years and sources of pollution; classification of natural reservoirs by integral indices of pollution level,
g) the quantities of permissible ecological load and the inpidual standard for each reservoir and its fauna in the studied region,
h) a prognosis for the expected ecological state of natural water reservoirs and water fauna using mathematical models,
i) a manual for water-quality monitoring, to determine pollution of different origin on the basis of biological indices, recommendations on defining the ecologically safe load in water ecosystems, being a prerequisite for sustainable development of the economy and nature environment in the region,
j) a program of public awareness of the work results will be drawn up and submitted to educational institutions, radio and television,
k) a program of water resource management will be drawn up and submitted to the direct users.

New information will be obtained within the course of the project: on biopersity, ecology and evolution of water animals, on cytogenetics and genetics of populations, and on molecular mechanisms of physiological processes in biological organisms.

The elaborations will be submitted to the Government and institutions interested in hydrological and ecological problems, for the purpose of protecting reservoirs and water biocenosis from pollution.

The Project participants are highly experienced specialists, and they are the only hydrobiological group in the Republic which conducts work on a high scientific level, corresponding with world standards.


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