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Fine Structure of Geomagnetic Variations


Fine Structure of Regular Geomagnetic Variations from Satellite and Ground-Based Data

Tech Area / Field

  • OBS-NAT/Natural Resources and Earth Sciences/Other Basic Sciences
  • OBS-OTH/Other/Other Basic Sciences

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Supporting institutes

  • VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk


  • Geological Survey of Canada / Geomagnetic Laboratory, Canada, ON, Ottawa\nGeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany, Potsdam

Project summary

The objective of the project is an investigation of properties of fine structure of the regular diurnal and annual variations of the geomagnetic field which provide the bases for correct separation of geomagnetic disturbances and determination of quiet, in magnetic aspect, periods.

Quiet periods are an important part for assessment of the state of the so-called space weather. Prominent geophysicists Chapmen S. and Akasofu S. pointed out in their basic work “Solar-Terrestrial Physics”: “One of the main problems posed for scientists is to understand a nature of the basic processes related with the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth’s atmosphere in quiet periods” Akasofu, S.-I. and S. Chapman, Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1972).

However, separation of the actually quiet periods is still not solved problem, and that fact has motivated the birth of this project. For achievement of the stated goals the following tasks should be completed:

  1. Data collection from magnetic observatories of the global network (no less than 95 observatories) for long-term period for determination of statistical mean of diurnal variations of Sq(X), Sq(Y), and Sq(Z) in various latitudinal zones (from pole to equator).
  2. Carrying out comparison of statistical means of diurnal variations of Sq(X), Sq(Y), and Sq(Z) with the variations on specified days recorded by the magnetic observatories of the global network with the aim of separation of quiet (reference) days.
  3. Detailed study of spatial-temporal peculiarities of Sq and SD variations from day to day, from season to season, during solar activity cycle and their comparison with the parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).
  4. Study of properties of the latitudinal dependence of Sq-variation in equatorial regions at deferent hours of the day using data from CHAMP and OERSTED satellites.
  5. Development of models of the equatorial electrojet formation from mid-latitude Sq-currents using mathematical and experimental (electrical) modelling with data from CHAMP and OERSTED satellites and ground-based magnetic observatories.
  6. Separation of annual variation of the geomagnetic field level using ground-based and satellite data (CHAMP and OERSTED) for the same period of observation.
  7. Carrying out spherical harmonic analysis of previously separated annual variation of the geomagnetic field level using the data from CHAMP and OERSTED satellites and ground-based observations with the aim to determine the parameters and spatial distribution of current intensity of the circumpolar current system.
  8. Determination of the altitude location of the circumpolar current system using comparison of annual variation separated from ground-based and satellite data respectively.
  9. Stage-by-stage and general analysis of the obtained results, their presenting, working out of the progress and final reports.

Experimental base for the implementing of the stated tasks are the observational data from magnetic observatories of the global network which are stored in the World Data Centers (WDC) as well as the results of investigations by means of rockets, satellites, and spacecrafts, published in scientific press.

For the correct separation of magnetic variations, the known statistical methods and new, developed during Project implementation, techniques and models will be used.

The Project fulfillment will allow for obtaining the following results:

  • modernization of existing methods and development of new methods together with an enhancement of computer programs for the separation of geomagnetic variations observed at the ground surface into parts according to their sources;
  • detailed study of the spatial-temporal peculiarities of the regular geomagnetic variations with time (from day to day, annual, and so on) which will allow for obtaining more precise information about Earth’s magnetic field as a nature phenomenon;
  • correct selection of the quiet, in magnetic aspect, periods;
  • to give a reasoned answer concerning the problem of origin of the equatorial electrojet;
  • to determine the altitude location of the unknown previously circumpolar current system which causes the annual variation of geomagnetic field level;
  • to offer a mechanism of formation of the circumpolar current system;
  • to expand the concept of the solar-terrestrial relationship.

Scientific and practical value of the suggested project is that its results can be used:
  • for modelling of spatial-temporal peculiarities of geomagnetic variations for more precise definition of the variable Earth’s magnetic field as a natural phenomenon;
  • for modelling of global circulation and upper atmosphere dynamics;
  • for physical modelling of ionosphere-magnetosphere interaction;
  • for deep magnetovariational sounding during earth's interior assessment (deep electric conductivity);
  • for more precise definition of the indexes of magnetic activity by the international services for geomagnetism;
  • for development of conceptions and refinement of theories on processes in the upper atmosphere.

The Project is based on the long-term experience of the project participants. Most of them have advance research qualification. Among project participants, there is one academician of RAS (Russian Academy of Sciences), two professors, three doctors of science, and six candidates of science. Their research publications and inventions are the solid base for the successful fulfilment of the posed tasks.

International collaboration is an important part of the Project. In the course of the joint work on the Project, collaborator will take part in specification and coordination of the strategy and plan of work, information interchange during the Project implementation, and evaluation of the research results;

Given project meets all requirements of the ISTC. The Project allows weapon scientists and specialists to redirect their talents to peaceful activities and gives an opportunity to integrate Kyrgyz and Russian scientists into the international scientific community. The study of the Earth’s magnetic field variations and their regularity is of great scientific and practical interest. The results of this study not only define information on the Earth’s magnetic field as a nature phenomenon, but also provide an opportunity to judge various dynamic processes in the atmosphere, ionosphere, and near-Earth space as well as create the basis for the assessment of the state of space weather which is so important for the practical problems of the cosmonautics.


The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.


ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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