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Biological Security of Agricultural Crops

#KR-1060


Biological Security of Strategic Agricultural Crops

Tech Area / Field

  • AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
  • BIO-OTH/Other/Biotechnology

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
29.07.2003

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz Agricultural Research Institute, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Collaborators

  • Colorado State University / Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, USA, CO, Fort Collins\nDanish Institute of Agricultural Sciences / Department of Crop Protection, Denmark, Slagelse\nSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences / Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Sweden, Alnarp\nUniversity of Nebraska, USA, NE, Lincoln

Project summary

The purpose of the project: Study of the genetic factors stability of agricultural plants (wheat, barley, maize) to fungi diseases and creation of a steady initial breeding material.

Grain crops are the most important products for the people and concentrated and rough forages for animals in Kyrgyz Republic.

The winter wheat is the basic grain crop. It occupies the significant area in republic and it is amazed some pests and diseases. The winter wheat is the basic grain culture and occupies the significant area in republic and plant on the area up to 500 thousand hа and more. Now practically all kinds of farms have no an opportunity to cultivate intensive varieties of wheat with high quality of a grain basically because of a defeat by activators of some diseases. The problem of creation and improvement of new varieties and genotypes bred wheat with a high level of efficiency and high quality of a grain and steady against diseases and pests is very sharp. One of most diseases is smut and rust (Tilletia laevis kuhn, Tilletia tritici (Bjerk) Wint, Puccinia striiformis West, Ustilago tritici (Pres.)).

These diseases meet very often and depend on natural conditions and number of variety winter wheat, which are very resistance to these diseases; also it depends on quality and completeness of measures against rust and smut.

On the data FAO, about 30 % of the world yield of grain cultures are infected micotocsins. The problem of pollution grain and bread's products by diseases, pests and tocsins is very sharp. Wide circulation kinds of smut and rust diseases and the tocsins of these diseases have the large ecological, economic and economic meaning. These pathogens negatively influence quality of a grain is especial flours and baked bread and reduce nutritious properties of forages. The above-mentioned fungi diseases are the reason of all poisonings of large horned cattle and also negatively influence health of the man. Not smaller harm these diseases put ecologies and environment.

Last years the yellow rust (P. striiformis West) puts the large harm to a crop, especial to quality of a grain and flour of wheat. The flare of this disease is marked in Kyrgyzstan in 2002. Loses of yield were equal from 10 up to 30%, the quality and quantity of gluten fell till 30-40%. The problem aggravated because of a pollution of grain and bread’s products by different pests and diseases.

The most effective way is creation and introduction to production of steady variety of wheat from all existing ways of struggle with diseases.

The maintenance of food security is possible by realization of the following tasks.


1. Study bioecological features different verities smut of wheat. (Tilletia tritici, Tilletia caries, Ustilago tritici, Puccinia striiformis).
2. Creation an infectious material (Tilletia tritici, Tilletia caries, Ustilago tritici, Puccinia striiformis) of varieties wheat in artificial conditions.
3. Creation the selection programs directed on attraction different sources generically immunity.
4. Perfection biotechnological methods of revealing steady to varieties smut of wheat.
5. Creation complex system protective measures according quality of grain and flour and technology of cultivation varieties of wheat.


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