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Influence of seismic activities

#T-2260


Influence of seismic activity to atmospheric processes in Tajikistan

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
  • ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
05.02.2016

Leading Institute
Physical-Technical Institute, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Supporting institutes

  • Geophysical Survey of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Collaborators

  • NASA / Goddard Space Flight Center / Goddard Space Flight Center's Snow Team, USA, MD, Greenbelt\nUniversity of Sciences and Technologies of Lille, France, Lille

Project summary

About 5000 earthquakes with energy class K ≥ 4 (M ≥0) are registered annually on the territory of Tajikistan. Geophysical Survey of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan has data about of earthquakes with K ≥ 9 on the territory Tajikistan and with K ≥ 4 until 1994, and with K ≥ 7 for 1995-2004 on Dushanbe – Vakhsh Region (DVR).
Study region has some big tectonics structures: Fergana Depression, Southern Tien Shan, Afghan-Tajik Depression, Hindu Kush, Pamirs and Western Kunlun Shan.
Two types of earthquakes are occurred on this territory, i.e. shallow earthquakes with source depth up to 70 km and deep or upper mantle earthquakes with source depth from 70 to 300 km. All available archives and published materials under collecting data were used. This data had information about the main earthquakes. Archives catalogues of earthquakes in Tajikistan that stored in the archives of Institute of Earthquakes Engineering and Seismology of the Academia of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan were higher-priority. For every earthquake were taken next main parameters: date – year, month, day; source time – hours, minutes, seconds (0.1 sec); epicenter’s coordinates – latitude and longitude with 0.1 degrees step; source depth (km); energy class K: Kp = lgE, Jouls; Kb = lgE, ergs; calculated magnitude – M =ƒ(K); accuracy of definition the location of earthquakes.
The given catalogue has the data about 3161 strong earthquakes with magnitude M ≥ 4.5 inside the territory with coordinates 35 -41о of longitude and 67 – 76о of latitude, and with depth H from 0 to 300 km. Not only Tajikistan, but the neighboring areas of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Afghanistan, India and Pakistan fall into the registered area. This area has common seismogenic zones of strong earthquakes that also located outside the territory of Tajikistan and can generate the strong shakings on the territory of Tajikistan. Given catalogue has three parts. The first part includes the initial period of survey from 1955 to 1961. In Tajikistan the highly sensitive stations started to work from 1955. These stations had short-period apparatuses with magnifying from 10000 to 25000. New instrumental base let to increase the number of register earthquakes and raise the definition accuracy of location the earthquakes. The second part includes the period of observations from 1962 to 1991.
The actions for the improvement and rectification of hodographs and definition the energy class of earthquakes in this period in the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology were developed. The third part has the data from 1992 to 2004. The regional stations started to close beginning from 1992 because of the well-known events in our country. Many stations were reduced from 49 in 1991 up to 11 in 2004. Level of the accuracy of energy definition was decreased to Kmin = 10-11 on the whole territory of Tajikistan, and on the neighboring areas with Kmin = 11-12. Accuracy of definition the coordinates of earthquakes were decreased too, and this was influenced to the definition of the depth sources.
For every earthquake were taken next main parameters:
                     date – year, month, day;
                     source time – hours, minutes, seconds (0.1 sec);
                     epicenter’s coordinates – latitude and longitude with 0.1 degrees step;
                     source depth (km);
                     energy class K: Kp = lgE, Jouls; Kb = lgE, ergs;
                     calculated magnitude – M =ƒ(K);
                     accuracy of definition the location of earthquakes, i.e : a ≤ 2.5 km;b ≤ 5.0 km;c >5.0 km;A ≤ 25 km;B ≤ 50 km;C >50 km
At the present time the definition of main parameters of earthquakes in Tajikistan and DVR are conducted with seismic network having only 11 stations.
The Scientific novelty of the work lies in the fact that for the first time will be done experimental observations precursors of the earthquakes in Tajikistan.
PROJECT OBJECTIVES:  Establish the monitoring troposphere station in the Dushanbe: research experimental observations Atmospheric precursors of the earthquakes in Tajikistan (Aerosol optical thickness, Ozone, Radon, Sulfur Dioxide, Temperature and Pressure). Establish the new monitoring AERONET station (on base of Sun- photometer CE-318-2 (CIMEL, France) for background measurements of aerosol on  Ayvadj desert zone  (Latitude 360, 58´ 43.66´´N  , Longitude 680, 01´ 22.84´´E , Elevation 321m) and Dushanbe AERONET station.
 PROJECT GOAL: Research of influence of seismic activity to atmospheric processes in Tajikistan

This project will be conducted in the framework of cooperation between the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of the S.U.Umarov  PhTI AS RT and Geophysical Survey of the  Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan.


PROJECT SCOPE
1.  Monitoring the atmospheric precursors (aerosol optical thickness, sulfur dioxide and ozone) related to earthquakes.
2.  Research of meteorology parameter of atmosphere (P, t) and its relation with earthquakes.
3.  Definition of the relationship between the concentration and dispersion of aerosols in d -0.3-1 microns.
4. Measurements of concentrations of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, radon and water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer.
5. Changes in the solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse components) and earth surface albedo
6. Monitoring the variation of the aerosol optical thickness of the atmosphere in the UV, visible and near IR - spectrum.

In accordance with the intended purpose will be solved the following problems:
• Study of air pollution with heavy metals (HM) in the regions of Tajikistan by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.
• Investigation of the elemental and isotope composition of soil and dust aerosol of dust storms of southern part of Tajikistan .
The aim of the project is the organization and implementation of programs to measure of air pollution in Tajikistan.


Priorities for the next study will determined group of pollutants and the resulting problems:
                     monitoring of atmospheric precursors of earthquakes
                       Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in UV, visible and NIR spectra in new Ayvadj desert AERONET station and Dushanbe  AERONET station.
                     Aerosol parameters for deriving local climatology of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in UV, visible and NIR spectra (340, 380, 440, 500, 675, 870, 936 and 1020 nm);
                     Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) course and fine Mode
                     Concentrations of sulfur dioxide, ozone and radon in the atmospheric boundary layer.
                     Size distribution in the range  r = 0,3-1 mm;
                     Changes in the solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse components) and earth surface albedo.
                     Studies of pollution of atmosphere by  Sr,  Pb,  As, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr and V.
                       Isotope analysis (such as Pb-210, Pb-214, Ac-228 ,Bi-214, Pb-212,Tl-208 and K-40) of samples of dust storms and soil
EXPECTED RESULTS
The project will provide, for the first time, a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties for aerosol research and characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with other database.
                     In the Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics of Physical-Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, a unique system will be established a new monitoring station in Ayvadj desert zone which will enable the monitoring of the major state components affecting the environment, with the emphasis on atmospheric aerosols (dust and pollution).
                      Data base  of seismic monitoring and research of influence of seismic activity to atmospheric processes in Tajikistan
                     Investigation of the main drivers of climate change: variations of gases (CO2, H2O, O3, CO, SO2) in the atmosphere of urban regions of Tajikistan and changes in the solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse components) and earth surface albedo.
The results obtained are needed to:
                     evaluation of gas-aerosol and elemental composition of the atmosphere on the seismic activity
                     influence of seismic activity to meteorological parameters of the atmosphere.
                     Developing of recommendations for assessing the interdependence of atmospheric and seismic activity.
The research team includes the doctors, and candidates of science who are highly qualified specialists in the areas of atmospheric physics, theoretical physics, ecology, climatology, and nuclear physics. They participated in many joint experiments such as the “Pollution of Arctic regions of USSR “ (Severnaya Zemlya, Wrangel Island, 1985-1987), Soviet-American ocean and atmosphere interface experiments (Pacific and Indian oceans, 1989-1990), Joint Soviet-American experiment on research of arid aerosol in Tajikistan (1989-1990), and the international experiment dedicated to the 70th anniversary of Soviet-German expedition in 1928 on research of  Dushanbe (Dushanbe, 1998). They also participated in the international Science and Technology Center (ISTC) Projects T-1000,T-1163, T-1688 and T-2076.  


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