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Proton-Pb and Proton-Bi Reaction Yields


Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Yields of Residual Product Nuclei Produced in Thin Pb and Bi Targets Irradiated by 40–2600 MeV Protons

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-ANU/Atomic and Nuclear Physics/Physics
  • FUS-HSF/Hybrid Systems and Fuel Cycle/Fusion

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Tocheny L V

Leading Institute
ITEF (ITEP), Russia, Moscow


  • Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, Stockholm\nLos-Alamos National Laboratory, USA, NM, Los-Alamos\nCEA / DRN / DER / CEN Cadarache, France, Cadarache\nJohannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Institut Fur Kernchemie, Germany, Mainz\nTokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, Tokyo

Project summary

The Project is aimed at experimental determining and computer-aided theoretical simulating the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive product nuclei in high-energy proton-irradiated thin targets made of high-enriched and natural lead (206,207,208,natPb) and natural bismuth (209Bi) that are the most probable choice to be the target materials in the accelerator-driven (hybrid) systems (ADS) coupled to a high-current proton accelerator.

The remarkable present-day Pb-Bi technology advance, which is particularly notable in the designs of the Russian-made A-submarines has made that technology preferable to underlie the ADS facility designs. At the same time, the Pb-Bi technologies operate under impact of the high-energy radiations that are characteristic of the ADS facilities. Therefore, necessity arises for extra studies of the nucleonic characteristics of lead and bismuth, in particular the yields of residual product nuclei under irradiation by protons of energies ranging from a few MeV to 2–3 GeV. The results of the studies are extremely important when designing even demo versions of the ADS facilities. The yields of the residual product nuclei define such the important parameters of high-energy radiation-affected ADS facility structure elements as radioactivity (both current and residual, alpha-activity included), deterioration of resistance to corrosion, gaseous product yields, neutron ‘poisoning’, etc.

The present Project is an extension of the researches carried out under ISTC Project #0017 Feasibility study of the basic technologies for weapon plutonium conversion and for long-lived radioactive waste transmutation (measurements of residual product nuclei in 0.13 and 1.5 GeV proton-irradiated Pb and Bi isotopes (Product yields from 0.13 and 1.5 GeV proton-irradiated 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb, and 209Bi and from 1.5 GeV proton-irradiated natPb were measured. The results have been published in: Yu.E.Titarenko et al., Experimental and computer simulation study of the radionuclides produced in thin 209Bi targets by 130 MeV and 1.5 GeV proton-induced reactions, Nucl. Instr. & Meth, A414, 73-99 (1998); Yu.E. Titarenko et al, Proc. оf the third specialists’ meeting on high energy nuclear data, March 30-31, 1998, JAERI, JAERI – Conf-98-016, pp.125-135. Additionally, product yields from 1.0 GeV proton-irradiated 208Pb were measured. The results are published in LA-UR-00-3597), and under the ISRC Project #0839 Experimental and theoretical study of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin targets irradiated by 100–2,600 MeV protons (measurements of the yields of residual radioactive product nuclei in such target materials as 182W, 183W, 184W, 186W, natHg, in such structure materials as 93Nb, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 65Cu, 58Ni, and also in 99Tc, 232Th, natU, totaling to 47 measurement runs at proton energies of 100; 200; 800; 1,200; 1,600 and 2,600 MeV). The present project suggests that 65 measurement runs should be carried out using the monoisotopic and natural lead targets (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb, natPb) and the natural bismuth targets (209Bi) within a more minutely fractionated proton energy range, namely, at 0.04; 0.07; 0.10; 0.15; 0.20; 0.25; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8; 1.0; 1.2; 1.4; 1.6 and 2.6 GeV. The experiments are aimed at determining the independent and cumulative yields (cross sections for production) of residual radioactive product nuclei in proton-irradiated samples.

The data on the product nuclide yields from the lead and bismuth targets are applicable to designing and developing the ADS facilities because they make it possible to determine and/or specify some of the performances of the target assemblies to be used in the facilities.

All the experimental yields will be simulated by the LAHET, HETC, INUCL, CEM95, CASCADE, YIELDX, and other codes. The predictive power of each code will be expressed via its mean-squared simulation accuracy for each of the target nuclei and proton energies.

The results of comparing between the measured and simulated data for each of the above codes will be presented as 195 plots (three plots for each of the irradiation runs, including the plots of the measured and simulated yields, statistics of the simulated-to-experimental data ratios, and distributions of the experimental and simulated mass yields). With such a presentation, the convergence of a given code-simulated data with experimental results will be visualized most clearly. The mean square factors of the simulated-to-experimental data ratios will be tabulated for each of the simulation runs. Also, the dependencies of the mean simulation accuracy on a given target nucleus and on proton energy will be presented for each of the codes. The targets to be used in the Project are monoisotopic, so the experimental reaction channels will be identified unambiguously. Therefore, the information expected from the Project will be indispensable when the authors modify their codes with a view to using them in the design and development analysis aimed at realizing the ADS facilities.

The targets to be used in the Project are monoisotopic, so the experimental reaction channels will be identified unambiguously. Therefore, the information expected from the Project will be indispensable when the authors modify their codes with a view to using them in the design and development analysis of realizing the ADS facilities.

New experimental data will be used to develop and specify the intranuclear cascade model. The models for pre-equilibrium cluster emission and high-energy fission will be modified on the basis of the modern physical ideas. The optimal parameters of the modified versions of CASCADE, LAHET, and ALICE-IPPE codes will be found using experimental data on the energy dependencies of the spallation and fission reaction product yields.

With a view to eventual simulating the experimental data by other gamma-spectrum simulation codes all the information on the irradiation modes, the measured gamma-spectra, and the results of processing and identifying the product nuclides will be included in a purpose-oriented database accessible in Internet.


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