Plasma Trap Neutron Source
Neutron Source Based on Plasma Gas Dynamic trap: the Key Elements.
Tech Area / Field
- PHY-PLS/Plasma Physics/Physics
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Ryabeva E V
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Akademgorodok
- VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk\nNIIEFA Efremov, Russia, St Petersburg
- Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt / Institut für Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Germany, Karlsruhe\nUniversidad Politecnica de Madrid / Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Spain, Madrid\nENEA, Italy, Frascati\nForschungszentrum Rossendorf / Institut für Sicherheitsforschung, Germany, Dresden
Project summaryThe aim of the Project is the development of a new methodology for the quality control and toxicological safety assessment of chemical and pharmaceutical products (including highly purified ones) and materials based on the reliable determination of the number of organic impurities, being present in the products, their identification, estimation of their content and toxicological safety.
Currently, the problem of quality control and toxicological safety assessment of chemical products is extremely important because the chemical purity of the products strongly influences their consumer properties. Therefore it is very important to determine reliably the quantitative and qualitative composition of impurities present in chemical (pharmaceutical) products and materials on trace level. Inorganic analysis of chemical elements impurities whose number is limited and known, trace organic impurities analysis in organic substances has not been developed properly as the number of organic impurities present in organic chemical products is never known
Commonly used approach to quality control of chemical products is based on use of GC or GC/MS (El mode). It is considered that all impurities being present are registered at chromatogram but in reality it is not so, as impurities, coeluted with the main component of mixture, or with other impurities or not eluted from the column are not taken into
Therefore, due to unregistered impurities, the purity degree of chemical products determined in accordance to common approach, is often overestimated and therefore products price is usually higher than it would be. Besides that lost of the information about unregistered impurities has to be harmful for the customer as technical or toxicological properties of the products were not estimated properly. The knowledge about the real number of unknown impurities being present in the water and organic solutions and in air and their nature is very important for the environmental pollution control too.
For more reliable solution of the problem of quality control of chemical products and materials the proposed Project 429.2 implies further development of methods for registration of Atmospheric Pressure Photo Ionization (APPhI) and Atmospheric Pressure Photo Chemical Ionization (APPhCI) mass-spectra for different classes of chemical compounds consisting of only molecular or quasi-molecular peaks ions and for reliable determining the number of unknown mixture components without their preliminary separation.
Combined use of APPhI MS, APPhCI MS and (El) MS together with chromadistillation, capillary GC, HPLC, HPTLC, SFE/SFC as it is proposed in the Project has to provide a reliable estimation of the number of impurities in chemical products, determination of their molecular weights and the identification on ultratrace level due to registering of respective MS/MS spectra.
For the development of the proposed methodology of quality control we propose to develop APPhI ion source for Teledyne (as most advanced) ion trap mass-spectrometer to be able to register daughter ions corresponding to parent molecular ions. At the same time the modified APPhI ion source, capable to perform in APPhCI mode, has to be developed for quadrupole mass-spectrometer which was used at feasibility study of the Project 429. We propose to develop too the method of impurities group determination in accordance to their volatility based on coupling of chromadistillation and APPhI/APPhCI/MS. We also propose to develop too methods of large sample injection of water and organic solutions for GC/MS, APPhl/APPhCI/MS and MS/MS, chromadistillation and HPTLC and based on them method of organic impurities determination on ultratrace level in these solutions and chemical products.
For impurities structure determination we propose the development of the method of APPhl/APPhCl/MS/MS combined with mentioned above methods of mixtures separation. Methods of non-experimental assessment of impurities toxicity have to be developed too.
Implementation of the Project would make it possible to design and develop new instruments, to design a system of interrelated methods for more reliable, than now determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of organic impurities in various substances and materials. This system will form the basis of complex methodology for the quality control and toxicological safety assessment of chemical products. Unlike the present state, it will be provided the reliable determination of the true number of components being present in a mixture (products), including those impurities, which are not detectable by conventionally used methods, and of molecular weights and chemical structures of components at concentration up to 10-7-10-8%. The procedures for the toxicological safety assessment of chemical products will be developed too.
Use of the proposed methodology will provide the great improvement of quality control of chemical products and their toxicity assessment. Therefore their quality can be upgraded and their toxicity can be decreased due to decreasing the number and content of hazardous impurities. Moreover, this Project is related with problems of the environmental pollution control especially in the case, when the composition of unknown (unspecified) compounds has to be determined.
Scientific and Commercial Significance
New solution of the problem of unknown components recognition in complex mixtures of organic compounds and of their identification on trace level is proposed to develop. Using these results in the Russian Federation and other countries would allow to increase significantly reliability and accuracy of the quality control of chemical products and materials and the assessment of their toxicity safety. The results to be obtained during Project execution will have commercial significance, since the developed methodology of the quality certification and safety assessment will be more reliable than existing ones. Improvement of chemical products and materials quality control and toxicity assessment will give benefits to chemical and pharmaceutical companies and to society. The developed methodology will be the base for the development of plenty of analytical procedures necessary for products control in respective industries and in environmental pollution control.
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