X-Ray Spectrometer for Space Solar Patrol
Creation of the X-Ray Spectrometer for Permanent Space Solar Patrol
Tech Area / Field
- INS-MEA/Measuring Instruments/Instrumentation
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Lapidus O V
Vavilov State Optical Institute (GOI), Russia, St Petersburg
- Daimler Craysler AEROSPACE, Dornier Satellite System GmbH, Germany, Friedrichshafen\nKorea Astronomy Observatory, Korea, Yusung Taejon\nUniversity College London / Department of Physics and Astronomy / Atmospheric Physics Laboratory, UK, London\nFraunhofer Institute of Physical Measurement Techniques(IPM), Germany, Freiburg
Project summaryThis Proposal go on with the first exploratory stage which already have carried out through ISTC in 1996 and with January 1998 the principal stage of the project #385 "Creation of the permanent space patrol of solar extreme ultraviolet and x-ray radiations". As a result of the first stage the Technical Proposal on the whole space complex has been completely developed and technical basis of the Patrol has been analysed and tested. Two space devices from apparatus complex for Patrol were created completely in the process of the principal stage.
The Project objective is to create the solar x-ray spectrometer - the last device from the apparatus complex completely prepared for functioning in a space flight on the base of the Technical Proposal developed during the first stage. The complex will be used for the permanent patrol measurements in real time of the absolute values and spectral structure variations of the extreme ultraviolet and X-ray fluxes of the solar radiation in range from 0.14 to 153 nm.
This Project has been discussed at the International Scientific Assemblies and the COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Scientific Commissions C "Space studies of the upper atmospheres of the Earth and planets including Reference atmosphere", D "Space plasmas in the solar system, including planetary magnetospheres" and E "Research in astrophysics from space" and URSI (International Union on Radio Science) Scientific Commission G "Ionospheric Radio and Propagation" have passed in the summer of 1996 positive resolutions approving the work on creating the permanent Space patrol of solar ionizing radiation and this ISTC Project.
At the present time in the world such patrol and plans it realization absent. This occurs solely because of technical and methodological difficulties in performing the measurements and calibration in this spectral range at spacecrafts.
Numerous attempts to the solution of this problem have resulted in the creation of the permanent patrol in narrow region of the spectrum 0.05-0.8 nm National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USA, and in Russia the episodical measurements without determinations of the main parameter - spectral structure are carried out in large part of spectrum by Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow. At the same time the importance of obtaining the constant and total information on solar shortwave activity for needs of humanity is beyond any doubt. The creation of the permanent patrol would make possible the essential achievements in the methods prediction of geophysical events (including the catastrofic global magnetic storms) as well as in the valuation of the role of solar events in meteorology, medicine, in prediction of the foilings of the board instruments of spacecrafts and satellites, the disturbance of distant radio communication etc.
The success of the proposed project is based on the use of - the technical possibilities and experience in the design of these optical instruments of the State Optical Institute.
The technical approach in this project is based on combined character creating in the SOI metod os patrol measurements involve the simultaneous use of two spectrometers and a radiometer, a special algorithm being used for separating signals from radiation and charged particles in the earth radiation belts. In this case, the spectrometers (on two basic spectral range 1.8-60 and 54-153 nm with resolution 0.3-1 nm) measure a detailed source function and its variations, whereas filter sensor (by six angles) give reference information for selecting signals of the solar radiation and for obtaining its absolute intensity (in the wavelenght 0.14-135 nm) allowing for the stray light in the spectrometer (with due account of the source function and the presence of 20 wave bands isolated by foil, thin-film, and crystal filters). In the whole apparatus are equipped with the open electron multiplier (elaborated by State Optical Institute) with photocathode, which is "solar blind" and characterized by high sensitivity in the soft X-ray region and by large dynamic scope equal up to 107. The latter characteristic enables to carry out the measurements both for quiet Sun and during the solar flares.
The separation of two signals one of which is generated in the radiometer by solar photons and the others by the charged particles of radiation belts is fulfilled by the comparison of the reading of two optical sensors one of which is oriented towards Sun while the others characterized by the same (or nearly the same) angle registrates the charged particles. These instruments and methods have been tested on the board of the Soviet satellites "Cosmos-262" and "Cosmos-381". This Project will be use the experience of measurements and calibrations, developed at the A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute. This approach realized at the solar X-rays monitoring on the board of Soviet satellites "Prognoz-5, 6, 7".
The commercial significance of the Project consist in the solution of the conversional problem of the space optical-electronic instrument-making and in using the free weight and volume of regular Russian satellites.
Thus, the Project completely responds to the ISTC's objectives. It will provide scientific-technological realization of the global international problem of the solar activity control. In these purposes there will be used the conversional potential of the defense industry former USSR.
Elaboration and manufacture of the modern optical-electronic instruments for absolute spectral measurements of solar ionizing fluxes (X-ray spectrometer with diffraction grating) with improved registrating photoelectronic circuits and new optical filters.
Development of the calibration methods for the apparatus complex.
Elaboration of the methods of obtaining the absolute solar fluxes from the telemetric information and the ways of its presentation to the World Centers of Data.
The value of the results with will be provided by the Project realization namely the data on Sun's "breath"-is of the humanity's scale.
Potential role of the foreign collaborators
1) Foreign collaborators, proposed European Union for research and basic stages:
- Fraunhofer Institute of Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM), Freiburg, Germany active cooperation in instrumental calibration and in the definition and selection of the instrumentation
- Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), ORSAY, Paris, France advise in the design of photometrically stable space instruments and calibrating methodics
- Daimler Benz AEROSPACE, Dornier Satellite System GmbH, Friedrichshafen, Germany consultation and active cooperation for optical space system design
2) Potential collaborators for participation in the development of the methods of the receipt, collection and analysis of the information on solar fluxes registrated by the Patrol: NOAA, Boulder (USA), NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center (USA), Naval Reseach Laboratory (USA), University College London (UK).
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