Own-rooted Fruit Plants
The Rootstockless Crop of Fruit Plantations on the Basis of the Biotechnology
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-FOD/Food & Nutrition/Agriculture
3 Approved without Funding
Kazakh Research Institute of Fruit Growing and Viticulture, Kazakstan, Almaty
- National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan / Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Southern Illinois University, USA, IL, Carbondale\nColorado State University, USA, CO, Fort Collins
Project summaryAt present the main means for fruit-plant cultivation is their growing in grafted culture (where a variety is grown on a definite rootstock). At the same time even the best rootstocks are actually used as prosthetic appliances, where the ever ensuing negative growing process of planting material is extremely complicated and also requires a considerable period of time. This is connected with the need to have mother plantations of rootstocks and scions, obligatory labor-consuming grafting and others. Large land areas are under nurseries; the growing process of plantings lasts 3 years. As a result the average price of a year-old fruit-tree is $1-2 and more. The complicated nature and long growing period of fruit-sort planting materials account for the reason why other industrial methods for their production have yet to have been elaborated. A major problem here is the impossibility of self-rooting of fruit cuttings.
A principally new system of horticulture development on the basis of rootstockless own-rooted culture of fruits is suggested. Long-term investigations established that most crops and varieties growing in own-rooted culture surpass grafting plants in the most important industrial and economic indexes. Micro propagation by tissue culture gives a 100% guarantee of quality. The price of 1 fruit tree will be about $1. The crown volume and sizes of trees in own-rooted apple and pear plantations, as shown by the experiment, are 30-35% less than in grafting orchards. The weak growth of own-rooted plantations has considerable significance for the creation of modern high-productive orchards.
On the basis of results obtained it is proposed that all fruit propagation is performed from root cuttings, prepared from with own-rooted mother plantations. Herewith the need for rootstock cultivation, maintenance of nursery fields, grafting and so on no longer arise. The period of cultivation of plantings is reduced from 3 to 1-2 years. Mother own-rooted plantations of main fruit crops (apple, pear, plum, peach, apricot) are created and the main means of growing sort plantings from root cuttings are elaborated. These elaborations help to construct a system of horticulture development on the basis of a rootstockless culture of fruit plants.
The commercial and economic effect is provided by reducing the growing period of plantings, the abolition of the most labor-consuming means of their cultivation - grafting, reducing land areas under nurseries and so on. It is expected that plant material and labor expenses for growing plantings will fall by at least twice.
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