Bearing of New Generation
The Assimilation of New Generation Bearing
Tech Area / Field
- MAN-MCH/Machinery and Tools/Manufacturing Technology
3 Approved without Funding
Small Enterprise KOMEK, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Kazakh Research Institute of Power Engineering named after Sh. Ch. Chokin, Kazakstan, Almaty\nKazakh Academy of Transport and Communications, Kazakstan, Almaty\nInternational Academy of Power Engineering named after A. Einshtein, Kazakstan, Almaty
- Stuttgart University, Chair and Institute For Machine Tools, Germany, Stuttgart\nApplied Materials, Inc., USA, CA, Santa Clara
Project summaryAims of the project are a practical substantiation of mass production of rolling bearings and bearings of complete lubrication of a new generation and also development and creation of bearings of a new generation with increased load-carrying capacity, efficiency, vibration resistance and strength properties. Introduction of offered rolling bearings into axle-box units of railway cars will allow to increase a resource of run not less than ten times. Introduction of a new technology of rolling bodies processing permits to create a thin layer of carbon on their surface. This layer raises strength properties of rolling bodies and executes a role of solid grease during the whole period of operation of the bearing, i.e. the bearing has a property of self-lubricating. Mastering of this technology will allow to refuse from an application of liquid grease under pressure in bearings for high-speed driving transport and to lead its speed up to 500 km / hour.
The second aspect of the project is creation of multistage bearings of complete lubrication, taking up high loads, and their introduction in turbines of hydroelectric power stations. Use of this plain bearings of a new generation will raise reliability and longevity of operation of bearing power-nodes of aggregates, will simplify mounting and adjusting works and also will eliminate use of expensive antifrictional materials.
An extremely urgent task is performance of development and researches on creation of a technique of complex analysis of dynamics of hydrostatic bearings (HSB), means and opportunities of correction, optimization of constructive and adjusting elements. Development of software and methods, accessible for wide using, will allow to design and introduce appropriate hydrostatic bearings with the most balanced dynamic characteristics, including best parameters of vibration resistance, for all various of introduction objects and operational conditions
Mastering of bearings of a new generation will allow to organize production of competitive products at the world market, support of technical developments in peaceful aims and drawing in these developments scientists and engineers, connected with development and production of nuclear weapon.
Scientific and technical features of bearings of a new generation.
I.Rolling bearings of a new generation.
1. Substitution of point contact of rolling bodies with races by linear one. It creates a new sort of friction, forcing to reconsider the theory of rolling bearings, and leads to possibility of perception of radial and axial loads several times increased by a bearing and also to increase damping.
2. Exception of possibility of jamming of rolling bodies between races of inner and outer rings, even with only thrust loads on any of the rings of any side of an end face.
3. Several times increased resource of operation as a result of both decrease of rolling friction and heat release.
4. Possibility of operation in clearanceless modification, i.e. it is no jamming in the bearing at a zero clearance.
5. Reduced level of vibration and noises.
6. Reduced requirements on greasing and cleanness of surfaces of raceways, due to obtaining by a new technology on a surface of rolling bodies a thin carbon layer, raising plastic-strength properties of rolling bearing and making it a self-lubricated one.
Simplicity of an angular ball bearing construction made of traditionally used materials by changing only races of inner and outer rings in an usual radial ball bearing.
An essential difference of rolling bearings of a new generation is that races of inner and outer rings are made with a section of a transversal profile, coinciding with a transversal profile of balls with formation of area of linear contact between them. And the middle of generator of the transversal profile of raceways coincides with points of momentary centers of rotation, thus the raceways on both edges are limited by longitudinal ring recesses with the profile of the curve of the 2-nd order. The optimal expansion of linear contact area is determined, mainly, by two main types of friction: resistance to rolling friction and differential sliding friction. As length of linear contact area almost by the order exceeds the length of large axes of ellipse platform of point contact, really linear contact is reached.
By decreasing, almost by the order, of specific pressure of contact, there is a possibility of considerable increase of perception of radial and axial loads in comparison with usually accepted loads by ordinary bearings. From a designing point of view producing and mastering of rolling bearings of a new generation has no insoluble problems.
Comparative strength calculations on accepted maximum loads for a radial roller bearing ( with short cylindrical rollers, series 3182120) show, that the offered construction of an angular ball bearing 12-120M can quite replace this widely-used bearing in spindles of high precision machine tools.
Being installed on the same spindles with the same regime of operations angular ball bearings of single perception of axial loads, made by world-wide-known bearing-constructing corporations FAG and SKF, are heated up to temperatures over 100C and produce an increased level of noise.
New rolling bearings support decreased level of noise and can be installed on machines and devices, where ecological requirements on noise are strictly regulated.
The given construction of rolling bearings is protected by the patents “SU # 1831599”, “F 16C. 19/00”, “33/58, 1993”, Republic of Kazakhstan # 990, “16C 19/00”, “33/58, 1994”, and also there is "know-how" on a new approach in calculation of kinematics of motion of units of rolling bearings. It is necessary to reconstruct departments of preparation and final operational development of raceways of inner and outer rings for mass mastering of rolling bearings of a new generation. Available modern foreign and domestic equipment allows to produce raceways of inner and outer rings of required sizes and forms, but only in single copies. Earlier, for ball bearings it was sufficient to provide accuracy of linear dimensions, but now technological requirements are so strict that it is necessary to provide an accuracy of execution of surfaces with profiles of the second-order curve. Thus, the main capital investments on mastering of mass production of rolling bearings of a new generation will be intended for creation of equipment, machine tools and measuring equipment of a new generation in departments of preparation and final operational development of raceways of inner and outer rings, and also it is necessary to reconstruct test beds, laboratories and scientific research centers.
Cost price of manufacture of an offered construction of rolling bearings increases not more than by 10-20 percent, traditional material is used.
Existing technology of manufacture of bearings creates high durability with simultaneous revealing of significant embrittlement effect. The latter leads to fast fretting and destruction of spherical or cylindrical surface of bearings, what leads to their accelerated failure.
Impuritied atoms of free carbon, being between edges of adjacently located crystals in near-surface layers of bearings during the operation under a load, due to deformation transfer from a crystalline lattice of "graphite" type into a crystalline lattice of diamondlike structure possessing high hardness.
Thus at an atomic-crystalline level on the whole surface of the bearing crystalline lattices wedge out in zones of placement of impuritied dislocative atoms of carbon, which are in a state of high hardness. This wedging out under a load creates a condition for appearance of cracking in regime of deformational sliding of crystals relatively each other, for acceleration of a creep etc., leading to accelerated destruction of the bearing, creating effect of increased embrittlement in a zone of near-surface layers of every ball or roller of the bearing. As a result their surface is covered by centers of microcracks, which are a basis of further accelerated destruction.
The offerinig technology allows to increase plastic-strength properties of bearings by removal of impuritied atoms of free carbon in intercrystalline state in volume of crystalline structure of the whole body of near-surface layers of bearings in the surface. Removal of carbon onto a surface according to a new technology creates carbonic inclusions of free carbon in a matrix of a surface layers of balls or rollers. These inclusions perform a role of grease at rolling and increase harmful influence of triboeffect.
2. Supports of rotation of complete lubrication
1. In thrust hydrodynamic plain bearings (THPB) due to presence of working liquid under pressure between sliding surfaces significant axial loads at various machines are compensated. These bearings can be installed, for example, on shafts of helicopters, on underwater and surface screw vessels, on turbines of thermal and hydroelectric power stations.
It is possible to assemble a group of simultaneously working single thrust hydrodynamic plain bearings on the same shaft at large axial loads. Preliminary calculations show efficiency of work of a single thrust hydrodynamic plain bearing installed on a shaft of a hydraulic unit. It is necessary to continue work on design and research of bearings operation with use of liquids with various physical properties as a working body.
2. A constant liquid regime of friction in a hydtiostatic bearing is provided in the whole possible range of frequencies of rotation in contrast to a thrust hydrodynamic plain bearing. Thus discharge liquor carries released thermal energy out of a hydrostatic bearing. System of automatic control allows to purposefully provide need balance of static and dynamic stiffness and also damping and vibration resistance. Besides, at contrast to all another types of bearings hydrostatic bearings allow by means of dynamic correction to effect on dynamics of hydrostatic bearings obtaining optimal relations of working characters and parameters what is the mt important for machine building.
Thrust hydrodynamic plain bearings and hydrosrostatic bearings provide increase of reliability and durability of operation of bearing units of various aggregates, simplification of mounting and adjustment operations, exclusion of expensive an frictional materials from use.
The construction of the bearing of sliding of a new generation is protected by the copyright certificate on the invention “USSR № 288095, 1970”.
From a designer point of view the bearings of a new generation have no insoluble problems of manufacture, and their operation and technical advantages demand confirmations by experimental tests of experienced samples of bearings of a new generation.
1. The project will solve a scientific and technical problem of creation of bearings of a new generation with highly effective parameters.
2. The designer-technological potentials of war-industry undertakings of both Kazakhstan and Russia for development and creation of test beds and machine tools on output of rolling bearings with a contact surface having the 2-nd order curve profile, will be used and hydrostatic bearings.
3. Creation and tests of experienced - industrial samples of bearings of a new generation will allow to collect a package of the orders from the potential users from Kazakhstan and from abroad in
such branches, for example, as railway, air transport, power engineering, and for surface and underwater screw vessels.
4. The complete marketing research of sort "Cost - Efficiency of bearings", being in production and using all over the world, will be carried out.
5. Implantation of bearings of a new generation into a railway transportation and hydroelectric power stations will allow to increase an efficiency of their operation. The calculations show, that the application of bearings of rolling at only Almaty railway will give the effect in cost, expression 2700000 USA dollars, without taking into account the cost of manufacture of bearings and expenditures on wages for the repair workers.
The foreign centers of science and universities could play the important role in creation of the theory of rolling and sliding for new sort of friction in bearings of a new generation, and industrial corporations in manufacture of machine tools and in the mass output of bearings of a new generation for branches of their application. If to take into account, that the bearings of a new generation on their characteristics have no equal to themselves and, without any competition of known bearings, will be sold of the world market, especially in a CIS, the commercial benefit is obvious.
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