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Technologies for Manned Planetary Missions


Development of Key Technical Means for Manned Planetary Missions

Tech Area / Field

  • SAT-MAS/Manned Space Station/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Tocheny L V

Leading Institute
Keldysh Research Center, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • State Enterprise Krasnaya Zvezda, Russia, Moscow\nRussian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Space Research, Russia, Moscow\nRussian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russia, Moscow\nNPO Energia, Russia, Moscow reg., Korolev


  • NASA, USA, DC, Washington\nEuropean Space Agency, The Netherlands, Noordwijk\nBoeing Northamerican / Rocketdyne Division, USA, CA, Canoga Park\nAlenia spazio, Italy, Rome

Project summary

When performing “Preliminary Project for Exploring Mars” (ISTC Project № 1172) the following results were obtained:

– The International Co-operation of participants engaged in development of the Project of Manned Mars Expedition was formed including Steering Committee for such Project (eight representatives from the U.S.A., eight representatives from Russia, five representatives from Europe).

– The Concept and the Preliminary Project of Manned Mars Expedition in 13 volumes were elaborated.

The final review of “Preliminary Project of Manned Mars Expedition” was held during the 4th International Meeting at ESA/ESTC in Noordwijk, The Netherlands during January 15 – 19, 2001. The participants of this Meeting were representatives of KeRC, SRC “Energia”, GP “Krasnaya Zvezda”, IMBP of RAS, IKI of RAS, ISTC, ESA, CNES, European Commission, NASA, Boeing and Universities Space Research Association (USRA, USA). The Meeting approved the Minutes (see Appendix) which state the following:

1. Project 1172 was completed in full scope and in all lines, and the suggested Architecture of Manned Expedition is credible.

2. The results obtained in the course of fulfilling Project 1172 may be used as a further reference to continue works in the fields of technologies and R&D required to carry out a Manned Expedition to Mars.

3. KeRC, being the institution in charge of the new Project Agreement, should prepare an ISTC proposal that addresses the following items:

– system and Mission Architecture studies;
– a surface power plant and a space power plant of megawatt class for power supply of electric rocket propulsion;
– reusable, environmentally friendly propulsion systems, spacecraft and launching vehicles for space transportation;
– ascent-Descent Planetary Modules and engines for them;
– medical-and-biological technologies directed to improve the crew’s living and working conditions and operation;
– on-board and planetary facilities providing effective exploration of planets.


The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.


ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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