Dynamic Simulator for Power Complex
A Multipurpose Dynamic Electric System Simulator for the RIAR Power Complex
Tech Area / Field
- FIR-MOD/Modelling/Fission Reactors
- INF-SOF/Software/Information and Communications
3 Approved without Funding
Russian Electrotechnical Institute named after V. I. Lenin / High-Voltage Research Center, Russia, Moscow reg., Istra-2
- VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov\nAll-Russian Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation, Russia, Moscow\nNIIAR (Atomic Reactors), Russia, Ulianovsk reg., Dimitrovgrad
- STN Atlas Electronik, Germany, Bremen
Project summaryElectric system, being considered as an assemblage of automated objects that generate, distribute, and transmit electric power, and attending personnel, is an ergatic system. The main function of the attending personnel consists in making decisions, which, unlike a logical conclusion, contain some elements of the creative choice in particular situation. The operator's duties are to coordinate the operation of the electric system components, detect malfunctions and departures of the controlled parameters from normal, and make decisions with allowance for the condition that occurs in the power system during unforeseen malfunctions of the automatic equipment, and in nonstandard situations Following such decisions depends on the operator's knowledge and activity in extreme cases. Hence it follows that it is possible to improve qualification of the personnel for electric power stations and power system only, by using the full-scale variable-speed dynamic simulators containing the system and technological automatic equipment and protections.
In the proposed project, a multipurpose dynamic simulator for the electric part of the electric power station will be a unity of systems for object simulation and personnel training with quality control for decisions and actions of the personnel that take a training course. Personnel actions with the simulator will approximate the actions of personnel at a real object. This is determined by that the simulator will duplicate the station operation in real time and produce normal, emergency, symmetric and asymmetric modes of operation when the simulator elements are controlled from the board. Within the framework of the project, scientific investigations will be conducted, the simulator model will be produced, the software will be debugged, the design documentation will be developed, and the experimental model will be manufactured arid tested.
The proposed simulator, which falls into an analytical class, comprises a three-phase simulator for the electric system of the power complex; models of the monitoring and control systems; network of several personal computers of the IBM PC/AT 486 and (or) PENTIUM types that provide control or the training process the work place of the instructor and simulation of the work places for operators dispatchers; and a supplementary computer interface performing the subsequent connection, as the necessity arises, of the real elements of the control desk. The simulator must simulate operation of the electric systems of the following objects:
- reactor installations, which produce electric power (necessity of including other reactor installations as a simulator component is detrained at the stage of developing the performance specification);
- RIAR heat power plant which is an independent power source for the reactor installations;
- RIAR loads of electric power;
- electric network and substations, including external electric-power supply, which is a source of the normal supply source.
According to the type circuit, the electric station simulator must contain the following:
- electronic models of synchronous and induction machines;
- models of higher and lower voltage switch-gears and transformers;
- models of static load;
- turbine models;
- models of control, protection, and automatic anti-emergency systems.
PC-controlled relays are proposed to be used to simulate switches and isolators. The switches can be controlled both manually, from the PC keyboard or mouse, and by the program for the protection and automatic control systems. Apart from the isolators and switches, the relays will be used to simulate the emergency situations: switching-off of one or two phases, reproduction of one-, two-, and three-phase short circuits.
Transducers of active and reactive powers, voltage, and current will be high-precision devices with an accuracy rating of 0.5 and a high speed of response of order 0.001 s. Information from the transducers will enter the PC for recording and, simultaneously, for running the programs of automatic protection and emergency situations.
Transients in electric machines are described by the Park equation in q,d coordinates that are tied to the rotor. In this case, processes in the field winding, damper and stator windings will be simulated. The turbine model must have a turbine governor comprising a slide valve and a servomotor.
Predetermined levels of the excitation and turbine governors must be set from the PC. The induction-motor model will reproduce transients and subtransients, providing the normal, starting, and shutdown conditions.
The control system that is a part of the simulator is intended for measuring and controlling the operating conditions of the objects of the electric station model and for representing its state on the mimic panel (operator's desk).
The system architecture must provide minimization of the hardware and cable equipment by constructing a multistage structure. Skill will be successfully acquired during training and retraining only if the controlled object is adequately represented on the model. A simulator must correspond to the research model by the simulation accuracy. The proposed simulator that operates in a real-time mode will be a device just of that kind. The electronic generator model, which is a part of the simulator, is described by a set of the nonlinear differential 10th-order equations; the motor model is described by a set of the 8th-order equations. The system and technological automatic equipment will be implemented by means of the PC with a high-frequency and fast-response interface. For the station comprising, e.g., (according to the type circuit) 4 generators and 2 motors, the order of the nonlinear set of the differential equations will be equal to 56. Besides, approximately 80 operating conditions with a 100-kHz conversion frequency and 0.5%-accuracy will be recorded in the process of the simulator control.
The simulator makes it possible, using the soft- and hardware, to implement the following actions of the relay protection and automatic anti-emergency system: field breaking switch (FBS), autoreclosing at any point of the system (AR), automatic load transfer (ALT), automatic prevention of instability (API), automatic asynchronous-condition breaking (AACB), automatic frequency relief (APR), automatic separation equipment, etc. This will allow (if there is a device for communication with the object) the simulator to be used for optimizing and refining the actual automatic-control and protection facilities, that reduces significantly the possibility for the emergency-situation occurrence at the station.
The simulator is based on the method of combining physical, analog, and digital simulation. This method will make it possible to reduce essentially the simulator cost, and the simulator will be presented as a desktop modification.
The review of the Japanese scientists  for the period between 1988 and 1993 contains a brief analysis of the existing simulators that operate in real-time and are intended for research purposes, simulation, and testing of actual equipment. Among the others, they describe the simulator "Electronic simulator applied to testing new system separation equipment" for the automatic system separation equipment. The similar simulators have been developed at the HVRC AREEI since 1975. According to the conclusion of Professor O.P. Malik (Calgary University, Canada), the HVRC AREEI developments completely measures up to world standards. The last publications of the group of the HVRC AREEI scientists concerning the given scientific problem are presented below [2-5].
1. Y. Sckine Science University of Tokyo 162. Japan. K. Takahashi CRIEPI. 1-1 Twato-kita 2Chome. Komat-shi. Tokyo. T. Sakagychi Mitsubishi Elektrik Corporation "Real-time simulation of power system dynamics".
2. Roshchin G.V., Sysoeva L.V., and Filatov V.I., Three-phase hybrid analogue power system simulator for studies in electrical power engineering, Electrical Technology, 1992, no. 1, pp. 13-22, (from Elektrichestvo, 1992, no. 1, pp. 12-16).
3. Roshchin G.V., Sysoeva L.V., Vershinina S.I., Smirnova E.V., Filatov V.I., and Fokin V.K., A device for coordinate-axes transformation for linking the analog model of the electric machine to the three-phase model of the network; Elektrichestvo, 1994, no. 12.
4. Vershinina S.I., Voronkov V.N., Kedrov S.Yu., Nekhamkin L.I., Roshchin G.V., Sinitsin A.S., and Sysoeva L.V., A multipurpose dynamic simulator for the electric part of the electric power station, IV Symposium "Electrical Engineering, 2010", VEI-TRAVEK, 1997.
5. Vershinina S.I., Voronkov V.N., Kedrov S.Yu., Nekhamkin L.I., Roshchin G.V., and Sinitsin A.S., Software for the module of the multipurpose dynamic simulator for the electric part of the station (10-11-kV), Reports IV Symposium "Electrical Engineering, 2010", VEI TRAVEK, 1997.
Potential Role of Foreign Collaborators:
For a long time, the reference points for our activities were the investigations conducted in the following well-known firms:
- Atlas electronic, Bremen, FRG
- Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Tokyo, Japan
- Calgari University, Canada
According to the reviews some of these firms, our developments measure up to the world standards.
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