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Catalysts Based on Nanoclasters

#3422


Development of Scientific Basis of a Technology of Catalytically Active Сlusters Formation of d–Metal at Nano-Dimensional Substrate with Different Topology of Surfaces

Tech Area / Field

  • CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
  • CHE-SYN/Basic and Synthetic Chemistry/Chemistry
  • ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
08.12.2005

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • St Petersburg Technological Institute, Russia, St Petersburg

Collaborators

  • Bechtel Nevada, USA, CA, Santa Barbara\nOy ITCC Ltd International Trade Centre Corporation, Finland, Helsinki

Project summary

A goal of the project - creation of scientific grounds of a technology of catalytically active clusters of d-metals formation at spatially oriented nanocarriers and development of principles of their use in industrially important catalytic systems.

A number of chemical processes take place over in catalyst, among which heterogeneous catalysts are mostly distributed. Their catalytic activity significantly depends on structure and dispersion of a carrier. As a rule, the higher dispersion of the carrier material, the higher catalytic activity of this system.

Authors of this project developed the introduction method of colloidal palladium into composition of carbonic nanomaterials. A patent application RF № 2003122564/04 from 10.07.2003 is submitted. It is established that obtained catalysts have significantly higher activity in hydrogenation reactions in comparison with industrial catalyst Pd/C (palladium plotted on other carbonic materials). According to available literature {Grove D.E. Plat. Met., 2002, 46, (2) 92}, about 75% of industrial hydrogenation processes are carried out with the catalyst Pd/C, containing 5% of metal palladium. It is important to note that hydrogenation with palladium, containing in carbonic nanomaterial, takes place at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

The method of the developed way could be used for nanoscale palladium, platinum, rhodium, gold and other noble metals plotting on other nanomaterials, i.e. creation of new generation of industrially important catalysts.

It is known that activity of colloidal palladium is determined by not only nature of initial reagents, but also depends on external conditions of its obtaining (temperature, effect of electric and magnetic fields). This, in the frameworks of ISTC project № 1281 we established that constant and pulsed magnetic fields cause significant effect on rate of autocatalytic reactions (patent RF № 2003110482/04(011066) decision from 06.04.2004). That is why in the project we are planning to study effect of reagent less factors on catalytic activity of metal containing nanomaterial.

Obtained new catalysts have the following advantages in comparison with traditional ones:

  • they reveal higher catalytic activity in reacting systems;
  • give possibility to vary properties depending on nanocarrier type (fullerenes, nanotubes, needles, etc.);
  • plotted clusters have similar controllable shape and could play a role of an "atom", which could be used for creation of highly organized nanomolecular structures;
  • the significantly simplify the process technology.


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