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Measures to fight Typhoid fever

#T-2007


Estimation of the situation with Typhoid fever in the Republic of Tajikistan and conducting activities to fight infections

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-MIB/Microbiology/Biotechnology
  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
  • MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
  • MED-VAC/Vaccines/Medicine

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
12.03.2012

Leading Institute
Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tajikistan, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Supporting institutes

  • National Healthy Life Style Centre, Tajikistan, Dushanbe\nTajik Research Institute of Preventive Medicine, Tajikistan, Dushanbe

Project summary

Typhoid fever – antroponozis infectious diseases characterized by a bacteremia, an intoxication, a fever, presence of a rozeolezno-papular rash, liver and spleen increase and defeat of the lymphatic device of small intestines.The agent of a Typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi), Gram negative mobile stick with the rounded off ends which develop endotoxin. Typhoid fever stick contains three antigens: the O-antigene, somatic (thermos table) including 9 and 12 antigens factors, the N-antigen, filamental (thermo labile), containing only in a specific phase and in addition to somatic O-O - a Vi-antigen (an antigen virulence). Currently total nearby 100 Vi-fagov11 and 1 types. They designate Latin letters –A, B, C, D, E an etc. Phagotypage - «the passport of bacteria», is used for a label of the circulating strains. It is possible to link epidemiological connection between diseases, to establish or exclude assumed infection source, to distinguish local cases from imported, relapses from a repeated infection. Annually in the Republic of Tajikistan cases of Typhoid fever are observed and in 2010 are annually has officially been registered 528 (7,04) and in 2011 376 (5,01) cases of disease among the population. The statistical data can be not reliable, because not for all patients go through laboratory testing. Besides the laboratory service in the republics id very weak and any quality are in place. Despite decrease in disease the risk is still great, and for its full of liquidation action is necessary to take preventive measures. Infection source are sick patient with Typhoid fever and bacteriocarriers. 3-5 % of them forms chronicbacteriocarriers (these figures can be underestimated because laboratory diagnostics is weak). Thus the agent can be allocated during all life with excrements and urine constantly or periodically. The contamination mechanism is fecal-oral. Ways of a transmission of infection – contact, food and water. Sporadic disease is observed by contact. At the same time, officially registered disease o Typhoid fever considerably differs from real and can be explain due to lacks of diagnostics among which the main place occupies weakness of a network of bacteriological laboratories, their bad equipment, diagnostics. Currently leading role of bacteriacrriers play main role in the spread of infection. The Typhoid fever in the Republic Tajikistan is the typical water infection extending as a result of high chronic activity of a water transmission way which lead to large acute epidemics and outbreaks. Activization of the water factor and distribution of a Typhoid fever is connected with irregular sanitary clearing that is at the bottom of infection of sources of economic-drinking water supply and municipal water use, and on occasion and a distributive network of a water pipe. Important value infringements of a technical condition have last and a technological mode at processing of water, its frequent failures, faults in application of chlorine agents. The purpose of the present project is stabilization and preventive maintenance «the Typhoid fever» in the Republic of Tajikistan and by that to lower risk of disease among the population by carrying out of vaccination among vulnerable groups. Vaccine procurement. Distribution of vaccine to those districts, where we have observed high level of morbidity by Typhoid fever. Timely detection of infection source (sick, bacteriocarriers), ways and transmission factors. Control over water according to the sanitary norms. Control over sanitary cleaning of the living sites. Creation of the conditions to follow personnel and public hygiene (in schools, kindergartens, railways, canteens and etc.). Control over decreed groups of population before hiring them to epidemiological significant sites. Control over ways of preparation, transportation, storage and realization of the foodstuff, in food services sites? Both in private and public. Population health education. Development and printing IEC materials. Carrying out laboratory research on water tests in countryside where we have numerous infringements of water supply system security of the population with good-quality potable water makes about 40 %. Also it is planned to carry out preventive action in those areas where high level of Typhoid fever is observed in groups of the most mobile and efficient population.


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