Microbiological Treatment of Clays
Microbiological Processing the Clayes of Deposits of Kyrgyz Republic
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
- OTH-BIT/Building Industry Technology/Other
3 Approved without Funding
Public Association "Ceramics Society", Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Ministerio de Ciencia Y Tecnologia / Instituto de Céramica y Vidrio, Spain, Madrid\nEnvirogen, USA, NJ, Lawrenceville
Clay is a widespread kind of useful mineral, from ancient times used as a building material, and today remains as basic raw material for manufacture building ceramics of different purposes. But unfortunately, clay raw material does not differ by stability of properties, that negatively have an effect especially at modern rates of manufacture, on quality of ready production. Besides, many regions have no high-quality clay raw material for manufacture building ceramics. So in republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, for manufacture of a brick because of the absence of high-quality clay is used small plasticity clay loam, having number of plasticity 3,5 - 5,0. Production, received on the basis of this raw material has small durability as well as frost resistance, besides, it has bad appearance as well, during exploitation salt appeared on the brick surface.
The brick factories of Kyrgyz Republic have large percent of defect; percent of certificated production is very low as well. This is the consequence of low technological properties of used clay raw material and, first of all, of its small plasticity.
At the same time, the ancient architectural ensembles of Bukhara, Hiva, Samarcand in Uzbekistan, Minarets of Yzgen, Tower Byrana in Kyrgyzstan, amazing us by their durability and appearance, were erected from ceramics, raw material which has the same small plasticity of loams, and today they are used for manufacture of a ceramic brick. However, it is known, that raw material in an antiquity was exposed to long aging, which is lead, as is known, to increase plasticity.
The quality of ready production in industry is defined by the quality of initial raw material, by the way of its processing and, at last, by the correspondence with the way of processing of technological properties of raw material.
The quality of clay raw material is initially characterized by its chemical and granylometric structures determining its technological properties, based, in their turn, on physical properties of a material, such as structure, plasticity, extensibility, shrinkage, swelling, permeability and etc.
The formation of clay raw material defined by its quality which occur by the influence of physical, chemical and biological eolation.
V.I. Vernadski, Polynov and etc. have proved, that in conditions of a surface of the Earth there are no sterile mechanical, physical or chemical eolation.
The process of destruction of mountain breeds results from the influence on minerals of complex factors and passes with participation of alive organisms, products of their ability to live and disintegration original "biological" eolation.
That is, there are 3 factors in natural formations of deposits of clay raw material: mechanical, chemical and biological. These processes proceed during a long period of time.
The man, using clay as technological raw material, processes by their mechanical (crushing by various ways), chemical (processing by various chemical substances), and biological ways (with the purpose of improvement of separate properties). Thus the time of preparation of clay raw material is reduced, that naturally borrows a long period of time.
Speaking about a concrete case of manufacturing of products of building ceramics from small plasticity loams of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, it is necessary to note, that a large percent of a defect obtained at forming of products that is, on that site of processing of raw material, where its basic properties are plasticity or, in the technological plan, mold ability.
In the project the task on processing of clay loams of Kyrgyzstan used for production of products of rough building ceramics by the various bioadditives will be realized as well as the purpose of improvement of technological properties of clay raw material. It is proposed the way of activization by processing specific cultures of microorganisms.
Works in this area were carried out: Webbly D.M., Henderson M.E., Taylor J.F. “The microbiology of rocks and weathered stones”, Journal of Soil science, 1963, volume 14 №1; V.I. Vernadski, “The problems of decomposition of kaolin by organisms”, article volume 5, Moscow, Academy of science of the USSR, 1960; Duff R.B., Webbly D.M., Scott R.O. “Solubilization of minerals and related materials by 2-ketogluconic acid producing bacteria”, “Soil Science”, 1963, volume 95, №2; Henderson M.E.K., Duff R.B. “The release of metallic and silicate ions from minerals rocks and soil by fungal activity”, Journal of Soil Science, 1963, volume 14, №2; Webbly D.M., Duff R.B., Mitchell W.A. “A plate method for studying the breakdown of synthetic and natural silicates by soil bacteria” “Nature”, 1960. Volume 188, №4752; Aleksandrov V.G., Ternovskaya M.I., Blagodyr R.N. “Disintegration of alum silicates by silicate bacteria”. “Bulletin of agricultural science”, 1967. №7.
In 1980 - 1981 in the Moscow Chemical Institute of Technology by D.I. Mendeleev, MoldaviaNIIstpomproject, VNIIStroiceramiks, magazine " Building materials " №8, №9, 1980 – 1981, papers O.P. Mchedlov-Petrosan, S.K. Vainberg, A.S. Vlasova, devoted to microbiological processing of clay raw material; works MCHTI by D.I. Mendeleev, p.116, М., 1980 " Chemistry and technology of technological silicates " - S.K. Vainberg, A.S. Vlasov, V.P. Scripnic "Enrichment of clay raw material with the help of silicates of bacteria "; a. s. №992483 C 04 B 33/04 A.S. Vlasov, V.P. Scripnic, S.K. Vainberg " Way of processing of ceramic mass "; materials of conferences of Leningrad Construction Institute 1986 -1988; the information of KyrgyzNIINTI, 1985 A. Mavlyanov, L. Povetyeva; materials of conferences of Frunze Polytechnic Institute 1986 -1988; A.S. Vlasov, Y.V Nojnicova, O.I. Yachenco MHTI by D.I. Mendeleev, S.K. Vainberg, V.P. Scripnic MoldaviaNIIstpomproject; T.N. Solnychkina, V.A. Sidorova VNIIStroiceramiks. V.V. Baranov Minstpoimateriales USSR "The influence of bioprocessing on technological properties of chlikers and pressure ".
“The influence of microbiological processing on the structure of clayish loam” A. Mavlyanov, M. Kasymova, L. Povetyeva., Sanct-Petersburg, 2001.
During microbiological processing we can say about activization of clay raw material due to increasing clay composition that lead to plasticity and decreasing permeability (decreasing its filter property) – it is actual both for production of burning ceramic products of different purposes and for using exciting in Kyrgyzstan of blue clay, which is an effective material for burial place of radioactive waste products. And this task is actual not only for Kyrgyzstan having on its territory burial places of radioactive waste products with the volume of 70 mm3 and for burial places of waste products under processing of mineral raw material with the volume of 600 mm3. And this waste product of different industrial institutions does not provide stability and safety of the influence of environment and the health of people living near such sources of their location.
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