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Monitoring of Xenon and Krypton Isotopes


Development of Methodical Bases and Mobile Equipment for Monitoring of Xe and Kr Radionuclides in the North-West Region of Russia

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment

8 Project completed

Registration date

Completion date

Senior Project Manager
Rudneva V Ya

Leading Institute
Khlopin Radium Institute, Russia, St Petersburg

Supporting institutes

  • North-West Administration on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of the Russian Federation, Russia, St Petersburg


  • Canadian Meteorological Center, Canada, QC, Quebec City\nDanish Meteorological Institute, Denmark, Copenhagen\nVerification and Incident Monitoring Radiation Protection Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Canada, ON, Ottawa\nBundesamt für Strahlenschutz/Institut für Strahlenhygiene, Germany, Freiburg\nSwedish Defence Research Agency/Department of Nuclear Weapons Issues and Detection, Sweden, Stockholm

Project summary

The objective of the Project is the development of mobile equipment and large-scale radiactive noble gas (RNG) measurements using this equipment with subsequent interpretation of obtained data. Xenon and krypton isotopes are formed in large quantities during nuclear fission and easily come into the atmosphere because of their chemical inertness in course of any kind of nuclear activities, and monitoring of their content is currently one of most topical trends of radiation control of the environment.

Knowledge of radioactive noble gases` concentrations and isotope composition in the atmosphere makes it possible to draw the conclusions on the character of nuclear process which resulted in their formation, location of their source and atmospheric contamination in sampling place.

Nowadays RNG monitoring systems in atmospheric air exist in Germany and Sweden and there is no such system in Russia.

Large experience in elaboration and making up of technical means and techniques for RNG determination in the atmosphere is accumulated at the Radium Institute. In particular, apparatus complexes of different kinds are elaborated (stationary, ship-transported and small-sized car-accommodated ones). These complexes provide air sampling, samples` preparation for measurements and immediate spectrometric measurements. Sensitivity of the complexes is sufficient for RNG concentrations` measurement at background level.

In process of Project realization 2 (two) mobile sampling-measuring complexes modifications based on automobile of UAZ type will be made for:

near-field observation zone - Sosnovy Bor (LNPP) town;

Poljarnye Zori town (Kolskaya NPP), Udomlja town (Kalininskaya NPP);

middle zone - St-Petersburg (LNPP);

far - field zone - Cherepovets town.

Bulk volume of works will be performed by moving brigades at car-laboratories basing in the districts of Sosnovy Bor, Poljarnye Zori, Monchegorsk, Udomlja, Cherepovets towns.

During the Project fulfillment it is planned to obtain ~ 650 results on average daily RNG concentrations in the North-Western region of Russia. These will be the first systematic observations of RNG content in atmospheric air of a given region. These data will make it possible to get the information on the dynamics RNG concentrations` variations in observation points depending both on NPP working regime and meteorological conditions, and the influence of other sources of RNG injection. With due regard for the data on meteorological situation and using of RNG monitoring results in Germany as well, the possibility arises to investigate transboundary transport processes.

In course of the Project realization a technique of RNG injection source determination and its identification will be elaborated. Highly trained specialists, previously engaged in different aspects of conducting both nuclear weapon tests and peaceful nuclear explosions, will be engaged in the Project.

In process of the Project implementation close interaction between the Radium Institute and Atmospheric Radioactivity Institute (Freiburg) is planned on the exchange of experimental data and their interpretation.


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