Herbicide on Base of Microscopic Fungi
Development of Biological Preparation Based on Natural Microorganisms Strains for Control of Perennial Weeds
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
- BIO-IND/Industrial Biotechnology/Biotechnology
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M
Research Center of Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Russia, Moscow reg., Serpukhov
- Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Russia, St Petersburg
- Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada, ON, Ottawa
Project summaryThe objective of the proposed Project is to identify microscopic fungi species specific for perennial weeds, to establish a collection of strains, to characterize the strains with regard to their ability to infect weeds, as well as to select fungi strains harmless for useful plants and warm-blooded animals, to pick out perspective producers of mycoherbicides, and to perform primary assessment of biological, toxicological and technological potency of the strains.
1. Conduct mycofloristic examination of perennial weeds growing in different ecological zones of Russia and collect the material for establishing collection of phytopathogenic fungus pure cultures.
2. Conduct isolation and identification of microscopic fungi from the offsets of weeds widespread in the crop plants.
3. Assess species specificity and safety of the isolates for crop plants and establish on their basis a collection of strains perspective for the further study.
4. Conduct in vegetation conditions primary biological assessment of the strain collection and select the strains perspective for mycoherbicide production.
5. Conduct complex studies of the perspective strains to assess their hygienic safety.
6. Assess technological effectiveness of the selected strains for production of mycoherbicides.
7. Produce experimental sample of mycoherbicide and assess its efficiency in vegetation conditions.
8. Assess toxicologo-hygienic safety of experimental sample of mycoherbicide.
At the first stage of work, expeditions to the regions of Northern Caucasus, the Central and Central Black Earth zone, the Volga region, Ural, Altai, Siberia and the Far East will be arranged with the purpose to assess the level of spreading of perennial weeds in the crops, as well as the level of their contamination with pathogens, and to collect the contaminated plants. In laboratory conditions the pathogens will be isolated in pure cultures and identified.
Year 2 of the research will be devoted to studying biological behaviors of microscopic fungi strains, to the selection of the most active ones as well as to biological assessment of them in vegetative conditions. Strain biological activity to the most hazardous weeds (Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis) will be assessed.
During 2-3 year of the project approbation of the mycoherbicide efficiency in field conditions and assessment of its harmlessness for humans will be performed.
At the final stage of work, techniques for cultivating the perspective strains will be developed.
The following results are expected:
1. A herbarium of weeds and wild plants infected with phytopathogenic fungi;
2. A list of fungus species infecting offset weeds in different zones of Russia;
3. A Collection of fungus strains prospective as mycoherbicide producers;
4. Hygienic assessment of the most suitable strain for producing biological mycoherbicide on its basis;
5. Technological parameters for cultivating the strains prospective for mycoherbicide production;
6. Experimental sample of a mycoherbicide and results of the assessment of its biological efficiency, as well as harmlessness for warm-blooded animals.
Scientific novelty and advantage of the project consist in the following: for the first time the mapping of the territories of Russia with regard to species specificity of microscopic fungi contaminating perennial weeds and with regard to the level of pathogen spreading will be conducted; a collection of fungus strains of practical interest as producers of ecologically safe mycoherbicides will be established; primary biological and hygienic assessment of strains will be given, and cultivation techniques will be developed, and experimental sample of novel mycoherbicide to manage perennial weeds will be produced.
The value of the proposal is that the research will be directed on the development of ecologically safe means (mycoherbicides) to control weeds.
Research on studying the possibility of application of microscopic fungi in the struggle against weeds has been conducting for almost 90 years. Definite success was achieved in the introduction of some mycomycetes and in the development of mycoherbicides to control weeds. Thus, in USA the industry produces mycoherbicide DeVine on the base of Phytophthora palmivora and Collego on the base of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The DeVine represents a suspension of live spores and is applied against Morrenia odorata in citron gardens; the Collego is an able to be moistened powder containing fungus conidia and a filling agent. It is used to protect the crops of rice and soya from Aeschynomene virginica. The industries of USA and Canada produce mycoherbicide BioMal. The preparation represents a mixture of C. gloeosporioides f.sp. malvae dry spores and rehydrating agents. It is applied against Malva rotundifolia in the crops of wheat, flax and lentil. China produces mycoherbicide Lubao 1 to protect dodder. In Russia, work on the development of mycoherbicides has not been practically conducted up to now.
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