Surface Decontamination Technologies
Development of the Basis and Choice of the Technology for Removal of Surface Contamination and Techniques for Limiting Secondary Contamination of the SNTS Territory
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-RED/Remediation and Decontamination/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Svetlova A V
National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan / Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakstan, Almaty
The purpose of the project – to prioritize the most contaminated locations and objects at the SNTS according to the risk they pose to humans and the environment, and to elaborate foundations, and to choose technologies for removal of surface contamination and ways for restrictions of secondary contamination of the SNTS territory.
To reach purposes put there will be carried out following investigations: a determination of gross reserves of dose; an estimation of their summary transfer by any possible ways of migration (wind erosion of soils, carrying away with water, migration into depth, absorption by plants and so on) outside limits of investigated objects, a study of entrance forms of radionuclides in waters and a character of their distribution on soil fractions with different magnetic per susceptibility; as well as there will be studied sorptional properties of different materials and soils of near-by month areas of tunnels.
There will be carried out next technological developments: the technology of cleaning of water, running out from tunnels of “Degelen”, from radionuclides; the technology of removal of surface contamination by the method of magnetic separation.
Technical Approach and Methodology: During the classification of the most contaminated plots of the Test Site from the point of view of radioecological danger and the development of the technology for removal of contamination the main attention will be paid to locations, at which there were carried out excavational explosions, and to tunnels of the mountain massif «Degelen» with water-manifestations.
As a basis of classification of these objects there will be taken the following criteria:
· stocks of artificial radionuclides at investigated object and their maximum concentrations;
· entrance forms of artificial radionuclides;
· the total carrying out of radioactive nuclides out of limits of investigated plot or object and, therefore, a potential danger of object as the source of secondary contamination;
· the potentially possible dose load onto people in different situations.
For an achievement of proposed aims there will be required a fulfilment of large amount of analytical works. Therefore together with standard methods of analysis (alpha-, beta-spectrometry with preliminary radiochemical extraction and instrumental gamma-spectrometry) there will be developed and used express methods for determination of plutonium and americium, the methods of activation and reontgenfluorescent analysis, NGR- and EPR-spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry, electronic microscopy and roentgen-structural analysis.
For the map-making of contaminations and the study of the spatial distribution of radionuclides there will be used available existing data, a pedestrian gamma-beta-survey in combination with topographical survey of locality, and there will be selected probes with subsequent laboratory analysis.
Expected Results: There will be classified different plots of the Test Site from the point of view of radioecological danger and there will be defined the list of objects, rehabilitational measures at which will allow the greatest reduction in risk for the amount of funding.
There will be developed bases of the technology for removal of the surface contamination and techniques for limiting secondary contamination:
- there will be obtained sorbents extracting selectively radionuclides from waters. There will be developed technologies for prevention of radionuclides spreading with waters running out from tunnels of «Degelen»;
- there will be created the laboratory device for extraction of magnetic soil fraction with large concentration of radionuclides; its optimum parameters and regimes of operation.
There will be proposed the complex of the most economically acceptable remediation measures for the most typical contaminated objects.
Possible role of Foreign Collaborator: A participation in classification of contaminated plots and in creation of the device for magnetic separation of soils.
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