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Development and implementation of methods for early diagnosis of ecologically dependent diseases

#K-2206


Development and implementation of methods for early diagnosis of ecologically dependent diseases among residents of the East Kazakhstan region

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-RAD/Radiomedicine/Medicine
  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
  • MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
31.07.2015

Leading Institute
Kazakh National Medical University named by S.D.Asphendiyarov, Kazakstan, Almaty

Collaborators

  • Nagasaki University, Japan, Nagasaki

Project summary

The project aims to develop and implement methods for early diagnosis and prognosis of environmentally related diseases in the East Kazakhstan region.

Public health is an important indicator characterized by environmental condition. The demographic situation in the East Kazakhstan region for a long period is characterized by high mortality and general morbidity, consistently exceeding republican indicators to 25-30%. Intensive index of primary disability for the region amounted to 45.3 per 10 thousand population, while the national index is 29.2. The major causes of death and disability are cancer and cardiovascular disease, endocrine diseases which has direct connection with the environmental state. The largest of the former nuclear test site is: Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS) which produced two-thirds of all Soviet tests - 468 nuclear explosions, including 125 explosions on the ground and in the air and 340 underground at different depths in the vertical wells and horizontal tunnels. Many underground tests were accompanied by the release of radioactivity into the atmosphere. On the territory of STS were blown up two hydrogen (fusion) bomb. Victims of these trials found about 1500000 people. Activity radiation of cesium, strontium persists for several decades.

Analysis of ecological zoning of Kazakhstan (2011-2013 years) showed that the most important are the two groups of problems. The first group is associated with the elimination of the consequences of environmental disasters and the restoration of natural ecosystems. The second group of environmental issues aimed at developing new commercial technologies for the prevention, protection and restoration of environmental resources.

Environmental assessment and monitoring of the impact of environmental pollution on the health of the inhabitants of the East Kazakhstan region will characterize the features of ecologically dependent diseases. As a result, the project will assess the impact of ionizing heredity and human health by detecting chromosomal and gene mutations. Recommendations will be made to prevent the accumulation of cargo mutations in human populations. Will be used innovative methods of diagnosis and rehabilitation residents with environmentally dependent diseases. Will be tested modern methods of medical rehabilitation and radioprotective drugs.

Key achievements expected through the project include:

- identify key indicators and features environmentally related diseases in the Eastern region of Kazakhstan.

- developing methods for early diagnosis and prognosis of environmentally related diseases

- introducing modern methods of early diagnosis of ecologically dependent diseases.

Specific results will include:


- explore the risk factors of ecologically dependent diseases in women, their children and grandchildren (III-IV generations of inhabitants of the region) - to examine patients in inpatient or outpatient treatment
- assess the immune status of the residents living in the Semipalatinsk region.
- determine the prognosis of genetic consequences of exposure of the population in areas affected by the activities of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.
- develop laboratory passport health of ecologically dependent diseases.
- develop and implement methods for early diagnosis and prognosis of environmentally related diseases.
- assess the genetic risk for the residents of the East Kazakhstan region by forming a gene bank of 5,000 residents of Semey and 5000 from three districts - Beskaragai, Jean-Semey, Abay. Will be held cytogenetic studies, FISH-dosimetry, minisatelitny analysis loci, GPA - test.
- identify markers of inpidual sensitivity and to establish the relationship of negative genotypes with increasing number of chromosomal aberrations and mutations.


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