Wheat Resistant to Rust Diseases
The Development of a New Wheat Germplasm Resistant to Rust Diseases
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
The Agricultural Co-operative "Machine Testing Station", Kyrgyzstan, Kant
- KORGOO, Kyrgyzstan, Komsomolsky
- University of Nebraska, USA, NE, Lincoln\nGifu University, Japan, Gifu\nSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, Uppsala\nUniversity of Manitoba / Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Canada, MB, Winnipeg\nSwedish University of Agricultural Sciences / Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Sweden, Alnarp
Project summaryBread wheat in Kyrgyzstan is an important strategic crop as it is the major resource of food for population. It occupies more than half the total area of agricultural crops cultivated in the country.
At present practically all types of farms have no possibility to cultivate intensive varieties with a high level of productivity and a high quality of grain and, what is the most important thing, varieties resistant to rust diseases.
Annual corn losses caused by rust diseases in Kyrgyzstan are 10-30%. In 2002 an epiphytoty of yellow rust was recorded in Kyrgyzstan with crop losses amounting to 40-60% (M.Junusova, A.Yahyaoi, 2001).
A similar phytopathogenic situation is observed in the countries of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. In the period of rust diseases epiphytoty in 2001-2002 the crop losses in commercial varieties amounted to 20-60%. For instance, in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan the yellow rust pathogen in those years spread over the area of more than 1.5 million hectares.(M. Koishibaev, A.I. Morgunov, Sh.S. Rsaliev, M. Dzhunusova, M.A. Esimbekova, 2005).
The main efficient way of the control of the most dangerous wheat pathogens is to develop new genetically stable germplasms, genotypes and varieties the cultivation of which can result in a significant reduction of crop losses and an increase in the level of grain quality (О.I Maistrenko et al., 1978; R.A.McIntosh et al.,1995; B.T.Kampbell, S.Baenziger et al.,2001).
In this respect the application of radically new breeding methods, such as modern genetics and biotechnology methods is quite a topical issue.
The use of biotechnology and genetic engineering methods will make it possible to determine the degree of genetic difference of the wheat genome and to control the genetic processes. The solution of this problem depends on the application of new methods of breeding and the level of the breeding process (heterosis, mutagenesis, polyploidy, aneuploidy, remote hybridization) (M. Karabaev, 2003; K. Shulembaeva, 1995; A. Borner,et al.,Khlestkina et al.,2001)
One of the genetic methods of increasing the resistance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the introgression of genes responsible for resistance to different rust species into commercial wheat varieties. This kind of research into the reconstruction of the wheat genome is currently being conducted with the purpose of receiving genotypes with complex resistance (L.I. Laikova et al., 2003; К.К. Shulembaeva, 2003; S.P.Brammer et al.,2001; T.I.Odintsova et al,2001).
The biotechnology methods will make it possible to accelerate the selection process in the creation of genotypes with horizontal and vertical resistance as well as in the development of homozygous genotypes in the shortest possible time. At present the “bulbosum” method and the androgenesis method are practiced in plant breeding. One of the efficient methods is the method of androgenesis (anthers). Cultivating anthers it is possible to obtain homozygous lines within 2 or 3 years. These lines will be the main germplasm of future resistant varieties (V.S. Shevelukha, 2004; M.Aghaee-Sarbazen, H.Dhaliwal, H.Singh, 2001).
The commercial product of this project will be a variety of bread wheat that will be highly productive, resistant to rust diseases and have grain of high quality.
Goal of the project: The development of new forms and varieties of wheat resistant to rust diseases.
- The estimation of the bread wheat germplasm collection in terms of its resistance to rust diseases against natural, provocative and infectious backgrounds.
- The discovery of efficient resistance genes using series of isogenic lines. The genetic analysis of the varieties’ resistance for the creation of new sources and donors of resistance.
- The production of haploids in the culture of anthers in vitro.
- The cytogenetic study of new resistance forms and donors.
- The development of highly productive resistance genotypes to rust diseases for different ecological zones.
- On the basis of the study of bread wheat gernplasm collections for resistance to rust diseases the best numbers will be selected that will be involved in the crossing cycle.
- The hybridological analysis F2 will be carried out according to biological and selection characteristics on the basis of a genetic-statistical analysis. The best transgressive forms will be selected.
- The cytological characteristic of initial forms and remote hybrids will be carried out.
- The cultivation of sprouts from anthers will be carried out.
- On the basis of the genetic estimation of dihaploids homozygous lines that are of interest for practical selection will be received.
- Highly productive genotypes and varieties resistant to biotic and abiotic environmental factors will be developed.
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