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System Ocean-Atmosphere


Evaluation of Satellite-Derived Heat and Water Fluxes in Oceans and Their Influence on the Weather-Forming Factors at Continents with Passive Microwave Methods

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-RAW/Radiofrequency Waves/Physics
  • ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment
  • SAT-OTH/Other/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
Russian Academy of Sciences / Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics / Fryazino Branch, Russia, Moscow reg., Fryazino


  • Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University / Center of Hydrology, Soil Climatology and Remote Sensing, USA, AL, Normal\nInstitute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, Sidney\nFriedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn / Meteorologisches Institut, Germany, Bonn\nTexas A&M University / Department of Atmospheric Science, USA, TX, College Station\nUS Department of Commerce / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA, CO, Boulder\nInstitute Fuer Meereskunde, Germany, Kiel

Project summary

The project is aimed on the development satellite microwave radiometric methods of studies the processes of the ocean-atmosphere interaction in so called energy-active zones of the oceans and their influence on the weather and climatic characteristics of continents. The envisages results of researches will be fit for meteorologists and oceanologists. This idea is based on a long-term experience of collaboration with leading scientists of the P.P. Shirshov`s Institute of Oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Water Problems Russian Academy of Sciences, State Oceanographic Institute, Roshydrometcenter, and Rosaviacosmos (Center of the Space Observation). The project is founded on the proposed in the Institute of Radioengineering and Elelctronics RAS conception which declares that characteristics of natural microwave radiation of the ocean-atmosphere system (SOA) can be used as direct (immediate) indices of an intensity of heat and dynamic interaction of the ocean and atmosphere - first of all, of the vertical turbulent fluxes of heat, water, and impulse (momentum).

The special problem emphasized by specialists in the field is a necessity of determination of the temperature of the near-surface atmosphere temperature which is only indirectly rules by the nature of forming the characteristics of an intensity of the SOA natural microwave radiation. That is why the following dilemma is not obvious, but interesting and promised: what is better – to use the satellite methods for retrieving the partial parameters of the SOA, or for analysis its state at whole. To our opinion, this task is similar to the idea recognized by specialists engaged in the infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum and its applications, where an intensity of the passive natural infrared radiation (effective radiation) is used as the inherent property (the attribute) of the SOA heat balance. The solving of this question is the main aim of our project, properly.

The scientific leader Alexander G. Grankov and his colleagues have a spacious experience in the field of interpretation of long-term satellite microwave radiometric measurements and their comparison with the vessel oceanographic and meteorological measurements data over different spatial and temporal scales. Most important results of these researches have been published in Russian central scientific journals (which are translated into English for long) such as the Doclady of Earth Sciences, Izvestija Russian Academy of Sciences (Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics), the Journal of Technical Physics, Earth Observation and Remote Sensing, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology Journal, which are known for Russian and foreign specialists. In the 1999 year these results have been included into the annual report of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The research group has the basic equipment and program means of processing and storing the data of satellite, aircraft, and oceanographic information, as well as the satellite-derived data at millimeters and centimeters accumulated over the oceans and lands during some years.

In the frame of our project we are planning to study the following tasks:

The researches of possibilities of using the data of passive microwave radiometric measurements from national and foreign spacecrafts in studies of the synoptic, seasonal, and intra-annual variability of heat and dynamic interaction intensity between the ocean and atmosphere during the period 1979-2003 years in so called energy-active zones of the oceans (EAZOs), where this interaction is most intensive, including:

- An analysis of the potential of satellite microwave radiometric methods of retrieving the near-surface heat, water, and impulse fluxes at the boundary of the ocean and atmosphere) over different time scales.

- An analysis of the mechanisms of forming the intercommunication between the microwave radiation intensity measured from satellites and heat characteristics of the atmosphere boundary layer.

- Experimental studies of satellite-derived estimates of a response of natural microwave radiation measured from satellites to the characteristics of cyclones (typhoons) and their existence in the synoptic time scales.

- An analysis of influence of intensity of large-scale ocean-atmosphere interaction in EAZOs on the weather and climatic characteristics of the continents.

The main result expected is the confirmation of the effectiveness of the conception advanced by the Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics in the 1980-th years on using the data of satellite passive microwave radiometric methods as the direct characteristics of the “ocean-land-atmosphere” system for analysis of the processes of heat and water transfer and their relations at different time scales. The results obtained of these studies were based only on the methods of modeling (simulation) of the SOA microwave radiation characteristics related to the climatic data only. In the frame of this project we hope to confirm these ideas with long-term passive microwave radiometric data, obtained from the satellites DMSP, and METEOR No.1, and No.2, and EOS Aqua.

The Project gives the participants a capability to conduct effective research and development activities in this important and widely requested area of the Earth exploration. Participation in this Project of foreign scientists as Project collaborators is expected. This will provide a unique opportunity for all participants to make international scientific contacts that will work beneficially towards integration on a multinational level into one of the most important fields of science and technology. The basic Project task is related to the area of human activity called “Developing Facilities/Means for Observation/Monitoring and Control of the Environment”. This is one of the main goals of the ISTC activity.

All collaborators are interested in realization of this project (USA, Germany, Great Britain, Spain), as the tasks of the influence of the energy of the ocean-atmosphere interaction on the weather conditions of these countries is very actual.

The expected duration of the Project is 36 months. The timetable looks like the following:

- first 6 months: systematization and generalization of the existing data of oceanographic, meteorological, and satellite researches of characteristics of the ocean-atmosphere interaction;

- following 18 months: theoretical and experimental investigations of the mechanisms of forming the intercommunication between the SOA natural microwave intensity and an intensity of the processes of heat and water exchanges at the boundary of the system over different time scales. An analysis of using the data of satellite passive microwave radiometric measurements as the direct characteristics of the energy of these processes and their time dynamic;

- last 12 months: the research of the effect of influence of an the ocean-atmosphere interaction between the ocean and atmosphere intensity interaction: a study of an influence of a heat-and water exchanges in the SOA interface in the zones Gulf Streamе,.Kurshio, and the Pacific Ocean Stream on the weather and climatic characteristics of the continents (accordingly, in the West Europe and Russia, Japan, and west territories of the North America, with the data of long-term oceanographic, meteorological, as well as the satellite microwave radiometric data.

Collaboration with foreign participants will include information and data exchange; preparation of joint publications, review papers; participation in joint experiments, meetings, seminars, etc.


The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.


ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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