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New Botanical Biopestecides

#KR-1122.2


Biotechnological Approaches to the Creation of New Botanical Pesticides and Molecular-Biological Aspects of Their Influence on Harmful Organisms

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
  • AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
  • BIO-DIV/Biodiversity/Biotechnology

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
01.08.2005

Completion date
23.09.2009

Senior Project Manager
Urezchenko V M

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz Scientific Research Institute of Livestock Breeding and Pastures, Kyrgyzstan, Komsomolsky

Collaborators

  • University of British Columbia, Canada, BC, Vancouver

Project summary

Goal of the project is search for active components in promising plant extracts and to determine the biotechnological approaches to the creation of biological preparations on their basis.

The existence of biologically active substances (BAS) of plant origin which can influence biological objects was known long ago. Efforts to use these active substances to control harmful organisms damaging agricultural plants and products kept in store have been taken since antiquity. But only in the second half of the 20th century the list of secondary metabolites enlarged considerably due to the development of biochemistry and chemistry of natural compounds. A great variety of the secondary metabolism products discovered in nature includes almost countless numbers of chemical structures: glycosides, peptides, hydroxamic acids and azomethines having in their molecules various functional groups, such as ether, ester, carboxyl oxy-, epoxy-, nitro-, and amino groups. On the one hand, they are responsible for competitive intraspecific and interspecific interactions, ensuring the optimum density level for its species and the suppression of rival species with the help of allelopathic substances, most of which are volatile terpenes or phenol compounds. On the other hand, they play the main role in the plants protection mechanisms developed in the process of evolution and aimed at the prevention of their damage by harmful organisms as well as the attraction of useful ones, thus determining the host-parasite relations of the second trophic level between higher plants and microorganisms, arthropoda, vertebrates. The existence of biologically active substances (BAS) of plant origin which can influence biological objects was known long ago. Efforts to use these active substances to control harmful organisms damaging agricultural plants and products kept in store have been taken since antiquity. But only in the second half of the 20th century the list of secondary metabolites enlarged considerably due to the development of biochemistry and chemistry of natural compounds (Lukner М, 1978, Harborn J., 1985). A great variety of the secondary metabolism products discovered in nature includes almost countless numbers of chemical structures: glycosides, peptides, hydroxamic acids and azomethines having in their molecules various functional groups, such as ether, ester, carboxyl oxy-, epoxy-, nitro-, and amino groups. On the one hand, they are responsible for competitive intraspecific and interspecific interactions, ensuring the optimum density level for its species and the suppression of rival species with the help of allelopathic substances, most of which are volatile terpenes or phenol compounds. On the other hand, they play the main role in the plants protection mechanisms developed in the process of evolution and aimed at the prevention of their damage by harmful organisms as well as the attraction of useful ones, thus determining the parasite-host relations of the second trophic level between higher plants and microorganisms, arthropoda, vertebrates. After the publication of the generalizing works by M.Florkin and R.H.Whittaker, the idea of the universality of the chemical interaction in living systems and of the leading role of secondary metabolites in it became generally recognized, what found its reflection in the appearance and intensive development of such new interdisciplinary scientific trends as chemical ecology and ecological biochemistry (Florkin M., 1966; Whittaker R. H., 1970).

Many secondary metabolites of plants display the ability to affect the hormonal system, development and fertility of phytophagans (Irainge M, Sallem A., 1988). Plant substances disturbing the development and reproduction of invertebrates have been studied in comparative detail and are rather well known. The effect of these substances on such vital systems of insects as immunity, the detoxication of xenobiotics, metabolism is much less known and studied. The induction or suppression of detoxicant ferments and other morphofunctional systems performing the protective and reparative reactions of an organism, determines the resistance and survival of insects under the pressure of unfavourable factors (climatic conditions, diseases agents, etc.) (Glupov V.V. e.a., 2001; Gillespie G. P., Kanost M. R., Trenczek T., 1997). The activity of the metabolic ferments responsible for digestion, the transport and metabolism of reserve and structure substances (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids), is also connected with the transformation of (transport, activation, detoxication) of allellochemical compounds in insect organisms. On the other hand, the modification of the level of different biosynthetic systems of the organism under the action of xenobiotics leads to corresponding changes of the process of insect growth, development, and reproduction (Lisansky S.G., 1981). The study of these physiological and biochemical aspects of the interaction of biologically active substances (BAS) of plants with insect organisms is necessary for revealing the mechanisms of their effect on insect development and reproduction.

Plants also possess various means of biochemical protection from diseases agents. Some of them accumulate in plant tissues, others – phytoalexins – are formed in response to the infection of pathogenic organisms [Lisansky S. G. 1981]. At present, under way is research aimed at inducing the formation of these compounds and the isolation of active classes out of plants with the purpose of using them for protection against pathogens.

The increased interest to BAS is accounted for by the necessity of ecologically and toxicologically justified substitutes for traditional pesticides applied in pest control. Preparations characterized by a highly selective effect on target objects as well as plant protection means having a wider spectrum of effect and combining several types of biological activity can be created on the basis of plant metabolites (Burov V.N., Sazonov A.P., 1987).

Investigations in this direction have been performed in Kyrgyzstan since 1994 with the financial support of the Department of Science and Culture of the Kyrgyz Republic. The theme of the investigations is “Search for ecologically pure means of plant protection”.

The purposeful screening of pesticidal plants of the local flora began in 2001 under the ISTC Project KR-482 “Research on Ecologically Pure Means of Plant Protection (Biopesticides)”. At present the results of these works show the possibility of using these plants against hazardous objects of different origin (Chakaeva A.Sh., Mosolova S.N., Prikhodko S.L., 2002; Chakaeva A.Sh., Prikhodko S.L., Mosolova S.N., 2002; Chakaeva A.Sh., Kotova V.V., Mosolova S.N., Prikhodko S.L., Chermenskaya T.D., 2003; Chakaeva A.Sh., Kotova V.V., Bekmatova T.K., Butorina N. V., 2003; Chakaeva A.Sh., Kotova V.V., Butorina N. V., Bekmatova T.K., 2003; Chakaeva A.Sh., Prikhodko S.L., Mosolova S.N., Bekmatova T.K., 2003; Chakaeva A.Sh., Prikhodko S.L., Mosolova S.N., 2003). But the choice of the technology of the application and creation of the biopesticide that will be used in the future for commercialization requires additional research at the biotechnological and molecular level.

The above materials testify to the fact that this direction is very promising and that there is hope that in the near future, plant pesticides, along with microbiological preparations, will occupy their place on the market of plant protection means. In this connection, the objectives were set as follows:

- estimation of the efficiency of active secondary metabolites of plants under laboratory and vegetation conditions;


- determination of the mechanisms of the action of the compounds studied by their influence on the physiological and biochemical systems of hazardous organisms (pests, phytopathogens, nematodes);
- determination of the most biologically efficient compounds of the separated compound groups according to their species-specificity and the level of activity regarding test objects and the chemical characteristics of the most active fractions for the determination of the acting substance.


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