Ecotoxicants and Plants
Study of Organic Ecotoxicant Action on Plant Genetic and Protein Synthesizing Systems
Tech Area / Field
- BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
3 Approved without Funding
Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Georgia, Tbilisi
- CNRS / Universite Joseph Fourier / Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Plantes, France, Grenoble\nUniversity of Iowa / Department of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, USA, IA, Iowa City
Project summaryContamination of ecological environment by industrial or military waste materials, organic ecotoxicants is one of the key problems today. Proceedingly, the search of pathways and methods of remediation of the contaminated biosphere is very urgent.
The goal of the proposed project is to reveal the mechanisms of action of distributed into the environment organic toxicants on genetic and protein synthesizing systems of higher plants (either annual, perennial) and to provide plants phytoremediational marking on the basis of obtained data. The vital processes in the biosystem proceed due to encode in the genetic apparatus the information, functioning of which stipulates all hereditary signs of organism. The study of functioning of genetic substrate will benefit the reveal of mechanisms of action of either exogenous and endogenous factors. For this purpose we propose to test cell nuclei and chloroplasts possessing their own genetic and protein synthesizing systems. Genetic substrate in nuclei is presented in a complex of chromosomes (chromatin) and in chloroplasts in,,bare" DNA that facilitates to fix the consequences of immediate action of any of the factors. Lately great attention is paid to the manifestation of air pollutant affect on metabolic processes in plants (Korte F., Kvesitadze G., Ugrekhelidze D., Gordeziani M., Khatisashvili G., Buadze O., Zaalishvili G., Coulston F. Organic Toxicants and Plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 47, 1-26, 2000; Environmental Research Section B).
For more than 3 decades at the Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Bio-technology have been studied the molecular mechanisms of detoxification by plants of pollutants such as: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, amines and nitro- compounds. More than 150 scientific works have been devoted to the point (Ugrehelidze D., Kvesitatdze G. Assimilation and metabolism of methane by higher plants. Fresenius Envir. Bull., 1997, 6, 740-748; Buarze O., Sadunishvili T., Kvesitadze G. The effect of 1,2-benzantracene and 3,4-benzpyrene on the ultrastructure of maize cells. Intern. Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 1998, 41/2, 119-125; Korte F., Kvesitadze G., Ugrekhelidze D., Gordeziani M., Khatisashvili G., Buadze O., Zaalishvili G., Coulston F. Organic Toxicants and Plants. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 47, 1-26, 2000; Environmental Research Section B).
Also have been studied the effect of some of the organic compounds like phenols, benzene, benz(a)pyren on transcription and protein synthesis in cell nuclei, chloroplasts and liver nuclei. The results were issued in works of:
– Meskhi A., Jokhadze D. Some aspects of action of simple phenols on viability of different systems. Physiol. Rastenii, 1973, 20, 1253-1256 [in Russian with English abstract].
– Jokhadze D., Papelishvili R. The mechanism of influence of simple phenols on transcription. Bull. Georg. Acad. Sci., 1973, 70, 717-720 [in Russian with English abstract].
– Durmishidze S., Jokhadze D. The effect of benzene and 3,4benzpyrene on transcriptional activity of cell nuclei and chloroplasts. Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR, 1977, 232, 233-236.
– Durmishidze S., Jokhadze D. The effect of benzene and 3,4-benzpirene on pro-te-in synthesis in cell nuclei and chloroplasts. Dokl. Acad. Nauk SSSR, 1978, 22, 453-456.
– Durmishidze S. V., Jokhadze D. I. The effect of benzene and benz(a)pyrene on the RNA and protein synthesizing activity of isolated cell nuclei and chloroplasts. In: Metabolism of biosphere chemical pollutants in plants.,,Metcniereba”, Tbilisi, 1979, p. 138-150 [in Russian with English abstract].
– Balashvili M., Todadze M., Kvesitadze G., Jokhadze D. The effect of aminolforte on endogenic transcriptional activity of cell nuclei and chloroplasts in the leaves of variety of leguminosa plants. Prikl. Biochim. Microbiol., 1993, 29, 587-590 [in Russian with English abstract] 0003-6838/93/2904, Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1994.
– Balashvili, M., Gordeziani M., Khatisashvili G., Papelishvili R., Jokhadze D. Removal of xenobiotic inhibitory effect by acceleration of their hydroxylation of protein and RNA-synthesizing activity in plants. Bull. Georgian Acad. Sci., 1992, 18, 324-329 [in Russian with English abstract].
– Jokhadze D., Gibberellin-binding proteins and hormonal regulation of transcription in cell nuclei and chloroplasts of higher plants. In: Subcellular Biochemistry. v.17 (Plant Genetic Engineering), Ed-s B.Biswass and J.Harris. Plenum press, N.Y., London, 1992, p.327-340.
The results of the project will be proposed as recommendation to the Ministry of Defence of Environment and Natural Resources of Georgia, the Ministry of Agriculture and to the corresponding committees of the Georgian parliament as well as other interested organizations.
Execution of the set forth objectives will benefit the following: investigation will reveal plants recommended for phytoremediational marking (from the point of ecology and farming) possessing more stable to organic ecotoxicants genetic and protein synthesizing systems. They will be used in phytoremediational technology. Comparison of tested plants detoxification peculiarities will help to select plants beneficial for agriculture and greening.
The use of cell nuclei and chloroplasts as test-systems immediately participating in the process of detoxification, particularly in hidroxylation and decarboxilation, significantly accelerates the solvation of practical objectives of the project. The obtained results will perfect the database on fermentation mechanisms of genome functioning and the process of protein biosynthesis.
The comparative study of genetic (transcriptional) and protein synthesizing (translational) systems of cell nuclei and chloroplasts will provide molecular-genetic arguments having significance for defining the degree of autonomous and evolutionary affinity of these organelles.
In the work will be tested plants grown in laboratory conditions (various sorts of beans, pea, soybean, horse beans etc.) and in the fields (citrus, tea, vine, some varieties of decorative plants). The receipt of structurally and functionally native cell nuclei and chloroplasts will be achieved by the advanced methods (gradient centrifugation, indication of the proceeded processes by the method of radioactive compounds, due to the recommended indications). Protein will be analyzed also by the method of electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing.
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