Shock-Wave Processing of Materials by Explosion
Shock-Wave Phenomena and Effects of Energy Cumulation at Processing of Materials by Explosion. Dynamic Synthesis and Consolidation of Covalent Ceramic and Diamond Materials
Tech Area / Field
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
3 Approved without Funding
Research Institute of Impulse Processes with Pilot Production, Belarus, Minsk
The project is devoted to the investigation of different aspects of the mechanics of high-rate deformation and closely connected with the relevant problem of the creation of the scientific base for new technologies of explosive treatment of materials and generation of new composites.
Project Goals. The investigation and development of the actual problem of high rate deformation, shock interaction and accompanying phenomena. The simulation and fine analysis of non-stationary problems of continuum mechanics including the study of peculiarities of detonation and impulse loading on the base of both precise governing equations of mechanical behavior of media and experimental data. The development and refining of both theory and practice of welding, consolidation and thermal shock treatment of ceramic and diamond composites by means of explosion.
Topicality. The progress of industry determines the permanently growing demand for the novel materials and new methods of their production. It is very actual to develop new methods of high-energy effect on materials in order to change their structure and to obtain some new special properties of these materials. The most perspective among them can be attributed to the technology of shock welding, consolidation of the nano-crystal and ultra-disperse powders, shock thermal treatment and hardening, dynamic synthesis of super-hard and refractory compositions. The problems of the major priority in the experimental and practical fields of shock treatment are the questions connected with widening of the technological possibilities of these methods using the new schemes of energy cumulation, high-temperature vacuum technique, and development of the modern numerical methods of simulation. The scientific literature overview on the subject reveals that no one of the well known models of the high rate deformation gives the adequate qualitative description of the complex array of physical and chemical phenomena which influence the process of explosive loading and high rate impact. There are wide experimental and theoretical material on this field but the problems of shock thermal and mechanical treatment which could really improve service characteristics of materials and generate new composites practically are not studied. There are not enough data about the process of interaction of different metals, chemical compositions and non-metal covalent powders (including diamonds) in solid phase. All these questions related simultaneously to the applied problems of both modern metallography and physic of dynamic interaction of materials are the subject this investigation.
The influence of the project on the progress of the field of science which studies the behavior of materials underwent the different kinds of shock wave treatment of the materials is encompassed by the development of the basic principles and methods of explosive loading and high rate impact. The project is invoked to govern the subsequent scientific researches and technological development on the field and create the initial database for the investigation of dynamic properties of synthesized materials.
The members of the project are high-qualified specialists of Research Institute of Impulse Processes well experienced both in the investigation of dynamic processes and in the development of the impulse technologies (explosive welding and compaction, hydrodynamic treatment and so on). In the 2000 the Institute celebrates the 40th anniversary of its scientific and production activity on the subject. A lot of problems having both industrial and military (improving of artillery and missiles technique and creation of new armour composites) importance had been successfully solved within this period.
Within the frame of the project the following works will be fulfilled:
— Investigating of the dynamic cumulation and dynamic features of the process of shock wave treatment of solid and powdered systems for various fractional makeup, initial porosity and conditions of loading on the base of obtaining and treatment of direct experimental data;
— Development and design of the effective methods and technique of creating of composites on the base of super-hard ceramic materials by means of explosive high-temperature welding [1–10]. The special tools for shock-wave high-temperature and high-vacuum consolidation of micro-crystal and nano-disperse powders (including diamond compositions) by means of explosive will be designed;
— Creation of the universal set of methods for investigation and application of the shock-wave treatment of different classes of powders and solids in the wide range of ballistic characteristics of the process and physical and mechanical parameters of interacting objects.
Expected results and their application. The main characteristics of the process of shock-wave treatment will be established. New directions in the development of the technique of explosive welding, consolidation and synthesis of a wide set of the new composite materials will be also considered. The wide set of experimental data on the influence of the characteristics of dynamic loading on the behavior of parameters of the powder and solid bodies will be obtained that will allow to create a special database of dynamic properties of materials. It will contain not only the experimental material but also physico-statistical processing enabling to perform analytical interpolation and extrapolation of results on a wide range of variation of initial parameters. The perspective methods based on the overlaying of the shock treatment, dynamic cumulation and technique of high temperatures will be developed. These methods will substantially spread the reachable diapason of parameters of the process of shock-wave consolidation of relatively cheap ultra-disperse diamond powders, which are produced in a great many within the conversion program of former USSR republics.The results of investigation on the project will be the firm scientific base for the conversion of military production, accumulated in a big volume on the territory of Belarus, and for the ecological supporting of its civil application. The wide using of special database on dynamic properties of materials will be a real backbone for simulating and forecasting of technological and shielding materials behavior in any real situation, which can appear under their application. It is planned to get “know-how” of the process of shock-wave treatment of materials, which will be patented in the Western countries.
Conformity to ISTC Goals and Objectives:
1. the project provides the work on the specialty to the large number of scientist of Belarus engaged earlier with the creation of new elements of artillery, missiles and armour materials;
2. the project allows these specialists to establish much firmer and closer contacts with their colleges in Europe, USA and Sought Korea. These contacts will be developed on the base both of already existed relationships (USA and Sought Korea) and of new one (Europe, The Netherlands);
3. fulfilling of the project will lead to the substantial spreading of base knowledge on the nature of explosive processes and dynamic interaction of materials;
4. the new knowledge on dynamic behavior of materials obtained within the project will sensibly push the development of the applied investigations directed on the using of impulse and explosive loading technique for the industrial purposes;
5. the engagement of a large number of the weapon scientist into the project works allows them to be closely involved into the market economy.
Scope of activities. Project will be fulfilled in two years (twenty four months). In accordance with announced goals three main problems will be solved:
Problem A. The investigation of the dynamic cumulation, calculation and obtaining of dynamic properties of the process under the shock treatment of solid and powder bodies; the development of the methods of high-temperature and high-vacuum explosive treatment of materials; the development of necessary methods of theoretical and experimental investigation.
Problem B. The study of the process of consolidation of the covalent ceramic materials by the energy of explosion; the investigation of physical and mechanical features of obtained composites versus the initial characteristics of materials and parameters of the shock-wave loading.
Problem C. the investigation of the explosive consolidation and synthesis of diamond materials, which will spread already known possibilities of the process on the base of high-pressure, high-temperature and high-vacuum technique employed to the shock wave treatment of carbon and diamond materials.
Role of Foreign Collaborators. Three well known in scientific world organizations are presented as the Collaborators of the project: University of California (USA), TNO-Prins Maurits Labolatory (The Netherlands) and Korean Institute of Science and technologies (KIST, Sought Korea). Within the project fulfilling all already existed connections with this organizations will be reinforced and become regular. For today the contract with the KIST on explosive welding of different materials has been successfully fulfilled, the contract with the University of California on explosive treatment of different solid and powder material is still in action. It is planned to make these relationships more regular and to practice mutual investigation and exchange of the research materials and ideas.
Technical approach and methodology. Experimental retrieving of impacting parameters will be performed by impulse photography, electrical and rheostat technique using. Attention of investigators will be especially concentrated on the study within a wide range of deformation rate and obtaining the data on the dependence of flows, strength and plastic properties of materials on the velocity of loading. The theoretical researches are based on the application of computer simulation methods of non-stationary problems of continuum, including certain modifications of schemes proposed by Godounov, Mader, Wilkins, Harten and others. Metallography investigation will be fulfilled on the basis of optical and electron microscopy, micro X-ray analysis, high-temperature optical microscopy, local mass-spectral analysis and so on.
The main approach to the dynamic and impulse problems investigated in our organization are presented in the following works of the members of the project:
1. Roman O.V., Smirnov G.V., Usherenko S.M. Technology of creation and treatment of composites by explosion.// Proc. of int. conf. “Welding and cognate technologies”. Кiev, 1998, p.105.
2. Komorny A.A., Petrov I.V., Smirnov G.V., Impulse Thermal-Mechanical Treatment of Carbons and Diamond Containing Powders on the Base of Hard Alloys, Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Powder Metallurgy (RoPM’96), Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1996, p. 257.
3. Beliaev V.I., Kovalevsky V.N., Smirnov G.V., Chekan V.A. High-rate deformation of metals. Minsk, 1976.
4. Beliaev V.I., Kovalevsky V.N., Smirnov G.V. Anwendungsmoglichkeiten des Explosionsschweibens fur die Herstellung von Verbundmaterialien // Z. Metallkunde - v.2. - 1979.- p.67.
5. Andilevko S.K. Oblique shock-wave on the interface of two media.// Inszenerno-physicheskii szurnal, 1999, v. 72, No.3, p.507 – 514. (translated in Engng. Physics, USA).
6. Andilevko S.K. Interaction of two unequal converging oblique shock waves in the gas with a constant politrope coefficient.// Inszenerno-physicheskii szurnal, 1999, v. 72, No.4, p.700 – 708. (translated in Engng. Physics, USA).
7. Smirnov G.V., Kozlov I.M., Suvorov A.E., Numerical Study of Unlimited Cumulation in the Case of Planar Detonation Waves Interaction in Heterogeneous Medium, Proceedings of the 1995 International Conference on Metallurgical and Materials Applications of Shock-Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena (EXPLOMET’95).
8. Andilevko S.K., Romanov G.S. and Usherenko S.M., An Explosive Powder Accelerator Having a Cylindrical Recess Filled with Tangsten Pоwder, J. Engng. Phys., 1991, V.61, No.1, p.842-845.
9. Komorny A.A., Petrov I.V., Smirnov G.V., Impulse High Temperature Treatment by Pressure of Diamond Composite Materials, Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on New Materials and Technologies (BIMTEX’97), Hyderabad, India, 1997.
10. Smirnov G.V., Zubar V.V., Petrov I.V., Sert. on authors rights No.1389138, USSR МКИ4 В23К 20/08 “The method of explosive high-temperature treatment of materials in vacuum and tool for it’s performing” // Discoveries. Inventions. 1988, Bul. No. 4, p. 31.
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