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Model of the Litosphere of the Caucasus

#G-1532


The Creation of the Thermo-geodynamic Model of the Lithosphere of the Caucasus and of the Black and Caspian Seas Areas on the Basis of Mathematical Model, Geological and Thermal Paleoreconstruction and Seismic Tomography

Tech Area / Field

  • OBS-NAT/Natural Resources and Earth Sciences/Other Basic Sciences

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
26.04.2007

Completion date
20.10.2011

Senior Project Manager
Tyurin I A

Leading Institute
Geophysics Institute, Georgia, Tbilisi

Collaborators

  • Geophysical Institute, Bulgaria, Sofia\nKarlsruhe University / Geophysikalisches Institut, Germany, Karlsruhe

Project summary

Abstract

The aim our Project is the study of thermodynamic processes within the Earth interior of the Caucasus area which are expressed in tectonic, seismic, hydrogeological and other activities. This enables to solve several problems, fundamental as well as applied, such as nature of tectonic activity, earthquake forecast, dynamics of fluids, use of hydrotherms in economy, revealing of the useful minerals and so on.

Objectives:

  1. To develop geothermal and termoelastic models of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Caucasus and the Black and Caspian seas areas on the basis of solving non-stationary equation of heat conduction from the position of plate tectonics.
  2. To reveal the possibilities for existence of temporary changes of inversion layer, its physical and spatial characteristics.
  3. To estimate temporary characteristics of anomalies of some geophysical fields on the basis of investigation of thermoelastic (displaced and stressed) model of a region.
  4. To reveal possible temporal mechanisms of origin of deep fault networks and spatial distribution of earthquakes (including the nature of earthquake “pulsation” cycles); origin of a “graniteless” zone of the Black and Caspian seas, neo-volcanism in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus; contemporary movements of the Earth crust, etc., on the basis of intracrustal sources, without mantle drawing sources.
  5. To reveal the nature of some anomalies (e.g., thermo–chemical anomalies) in order to validate basic mechanism of oil migration and accumulation as deposits, and also in order to perfect the method of revealing oil-gas perspective in regions.

Therefore, a full complex of investigations, similar to natural (the Caucasus and the Black and Caspian seas areas taken as an example) should be conducted on the basis of construction of plate tectonic three-dimensional non-stationary model. Thermal and thermoelastic models will be realized using additional temporary sources of heat and paleorecoctructions of the region (the scale to be 1:1 000 000).

As a result of the project on the basis of integrated geophysical studies the deep structure of lithosphere of territory of Georgia will be elaborated:

  1. Tomographical model of lateral structure of upper mantle and deep horizons of lithosphere of the Caucasus will be computed according to the data about propagation velocities of surface seismic waves, recorded by broadband digital stations of the Caucasus.
  2. Deep faults, singled out by methods of seismic and geothermal tomography, will be compared.
  3. Information about the depth of bedding of thermo faults will be received.
  4. Coefficients of anisotropy of rocks in various depths (for investigated territory) will be computed according to the data of simultaneously registered waves of Love and Rayleigh.
  5. The thermodensity model will be created on the basis of paleoloreconstructions, zones of seductions and tectonics plate. The theory of the scheme of lithosphere evolution will be developed using non-stationary geothermal and thermoplastic modeling. This will allow to understand the formation of vertical and horizontal thermotectonic displacements, quaternary volcanism, deep diapirism, crust astenosphere and thermoplastic Earthquake generation.
  6. The research will reveal spatial correlations between seismicity, thermodensity anomalies and oil and gas fields.
  7. Besides, possible, mechanisms of origin of ore deposits will be studied. For example, geophysical exploration shows that in the Caucasus there is a layer of partially molten rock (crust astenophere); its derivatives can form ore deposits in the upper layers. The areas of oil origin, its collection as well as oil-trapping areas will be delineated in the sedimentary formation on the basis of abiogenic (mantle origin) model of oil fields formation.


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