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Point Source of X-Ray


Implementation of the Physical Researches in Behalf of Development of Point Source of Incoherent X-Ray Radiation on Z-Pinch

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-PLS/Plasma Physics/Physics

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov


  • Sandia National Laboratories, USA, NM, Albuquerque\nCNRS / Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, France, Palaiseau

Project summary

The interaction of x-ray radiation with substance is a basis of many sections of science, engineering and technology. In last years, x-ray microlithography is being intensively developed; with whose help the manufacturing of microcircuits with submicron size of structures is provided.

However the use for these purposes of traditional enough soft x-ray radiation sources (x-ray tubes, electrons' ring accelerators and storage rings) has appeared inconvenient in conjunction with that the reserves of improvement of x-ray tubes in increasing intensity of x-ray radiation have appeared exhausted and acceleration systems are large-scaled and inaccessible. Thereof, the laser-plasma and pinch sources of soft x-ray radiation present the special interest, from the point of view of nigh intensity of soft x-ray radiation with comparatively small dimentions and the cheapness. Taking into account comparative ease of obtaining and high facto; of conversion of stored electrical energy into thermal energy of Z-pinch plasma, the last are appeared more attractive for development of a required compact and cheap; soft x-ray radiation source. However as against laser plasma, which is originally pointlike, the Z-pinch plasma represents extended linear object, poorly suitable for the purposes of microscopy and lithography without the special measures being undertaken.

The purpose of the proposed project is the carrying out of researches and the development of a point source of soft x-ray radiation on the basis of fast Z-pinch for microlithography and plasma diagnostics with demonstrating its capabilities in microlithography.

For the achievement of shown aim are proposed on the base of executed researches to elaborate methods of formation "hot" plasma points in given place of pinch, or methods of formation of uniform enough plasma string with utilization of incoherent soft x-ray radiation leaving its end face and the system of x-ray transportation and focusing of x-rays on the irradiated object too. It is supposed to carry out works on stabilization of instabilities of Z-pinch plasma string and generation of incoherent soft x-ray radiation.

It should be noted, that the problem of formation of uniform plasma string with controllable generation of "hot" plasma points is interesting in many aspects, in particular its solution could find application in the field of controlled thermo-nuclear synthesis: initiation of thermo-nuclear reaction.

The basis for given development are the results of preliminary researches, permitted to define more precisely generation mechanism and parameters of" hot" points of Z-pinch plasma, development of instabilities in plasma, which were obtained during fulfillment of the ISTC project #009-95, financing by USA. They were published in materials of International Conference: "BEAMS-96", «22 International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics» and others (See ref. /1-17/). In particular, the results of streak tube study of explosion of thin aluminum wires in high current generator's diode give evidence of generation of spontaneous magnetic fields in pinch belt area /6,17/. The preliminary results of research of development of ionization-thermal instability into the belt one are presented in works /1,5,10/. The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of parameters of «hot» plasma points of Z-pinch are presented in works/4,12/.

Despite the encouraging character of the preliminary researches, in the proposed project it is required to solve a number of serious problems, connected to development of a design of the discharge target, technology of its manufacturing, improvement of loading modes, stability of parameters of the generator discharge and repeatability of results, development of specific measuring techniques, development of system of soft x-ray transportation and focusing, methods of suppression of instabilities and control of the mechanism of generation of "hot" points. The last stage of this project is devoted to the activities, directed on stabilization of instabilities of the Z-pinch plasma string and generation of incoherent SXR. The last half-year of this stage will comprise the possible demonstration experiments in x-ray lithography field with help of focused soft x-ray radiation, emitting either from an plasma string end face or from the fixed in space "hot" plasma point, and also the processing and analysis of results of experiments with its extrapolation on mega-amper level installations; issue of the report documentation by the results of the development of devices and the measurements in experiments on the installations of the SIGNAL type.

The work on the proposed project will be largely based on the experimentally theoretical base, developed within the framework of the ISTC project 009-95 and including in self:

- SIGNAL and SIGNAL-M high current generators with peak current amplitude 250 kA and 500 kA, respectively, with pulse front 50 ns;
- Complex of diagnostics of parameters of plasma and output SXR, including frame and continues sweep streak tubes;
- 1D and 2D numerical codes of radiation magnetic gas dynamics and level population kinetics: ERA, MAG, TARAN and others.

Solving pure civil problem, representing doubtless scientific and commercial interest, the scientists and the engineers of Russian nuclear weapon centers will continue working contacts to foreign colleagues, having acceded to and been redirected on the problems of non-military character.

Participants of proposed project invite foreign collaborators to take part in framework of project in joint researches and experiments in device SIGNAL, discussion of results of experiments. They will be grateful for expressed in discussion remarks, suggestions of organization of new researches, exchange of scientific information.

Additional Information

During fulfillment of the previous project #009-95 its personnel have published the following papers.


1. Afonin V.I., "lonization-thermal instability in multicharge plasma of Z-pinch", Plasma Physics, 1995, v.21, p.267.
2. Afonin V.I., "About plasma points migration in Z-pinch", Plasma Physics, 1995, v.21, p.648.
3. Glazyrin I.V., Diyankov et al, "Simulation of physical processes in Z-pinch belt", High School Reports, v.38, p.23, 1995.

The following articles were prepared to publication and referred to the edition of Plasma Physics journal:

4. Afonin V.I. et al, "Study of plasma points parameters in Z-pinch".
5. Afonin V.I. et al, "About possible mechanism of plasma points generation in multicharge ion plasma of fast Z-pinch".
6. Afonin V.I., Murugov V.M., "Experimental study of hot points dynamics in Z-pinch”.

Reports on the conference "Zababakhin Scientific Talks - IV"(Snezhinsk, Okt. 16-20,1995).

7. Diyankov et al, "Simulation of physical processes in Z-pinch belt".
8. Kariykhanov N.G. et al, "Numeric analysis of formation of radiating ring at electroexploded wire collapse on small amplitude current generator".
9. Zubov A.D/et al, "Numeric simulation of development of axial symmetry MGD-instabilities in Z-pinches and gas liners".

Reports on the conference BEAMS-96 (Prague, June 9-15,1996)

10. Afonin V.I. et al, "About ionization-thermal instability at Z-pinch hot points generation".
11. Afonin V.I. et al, "Study of plasma points generation mechanism in Z-pinch"
12. Afonin V.I. et al, "About possible mechanism of plasma points generation in multicharge ion plasma of fast Z-pinch".
13. Diyankov O.V. et al, "2.5D numeric method for solution of MGD equations... for Z-pinch plasma description"
14. Glazyrin I.V. et al, "Numeric simulation of MGD instabilities at Z-pinch hot points"
15. Karlykhanov N.G. et al, "Numeric analysis of cold nucleus formation at wire electroexplosion process".

Reports on the 22nd Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics (Santa-Fe, USA, 27.10.96-01.11.96)

16. Afonin V.I., Murugov V.M. et al, "Registration of spatial-time structures of Z-pinch x-ray radiation at spectral range 0.1.10 keV".
Afonin V.I., Murugov V.M. "Experimental Study Of Hot Points' Dynamics In Z-pinch, Formed At Explosion Of Wire".


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