Detector for Extreme Ultraviolet Range
Research and Technology Development of Matrix Array Detectors for Extreme Ultraviolet Spectral Region
Tech Area / Field
- INS-DET/Detection Devices/Instrumentation
- INF-ELE/Microelectronics and Optoelectronics/Information and Communications
3 Approved without Funding
TRINITI, Russia, Moscow reg., Troitsk
- Russian Academy of Sciences / Physical Technical Institute, Russia, St Petersburg
- Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal, Lisbon\nENEA, Italy, Frascati\nPhysikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, Berlin\n[Individual specialist]
Project summaryThe project is focused on the technology development of ultra-fast matrix array photodetectors for extreme ultra-violet (XUV) spectrum range (wavelength 1-100 nm) with enhanced UV radiation hardness, for application in plasma fusion studies, in X-ray radiation sources, and also in astrophysical and space equipment.
The project will be carried out by efforts of two institutes: the Russian state research center «Troitsk institute of innovative and fusion research» (TRINITI), and the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of Russian academy of sciences (Ioffe Institute, St.Petersburg). Researches will be carried out on the basis of results, received earlier by the institutes participating in the Project.
TRINITI participants have significant experience in the development of plasma diagnostic systems of and systems of optical diagnostics for tokamak-reactors, including XUV spectral range. TRINITI has T-11M tokamak - plasma device with magnetic confinement for experimental modeling of the processes in thermonuclear plasma, including those related to the transport of impurities and their radiating characteristics in the XUV-range.
TRINITI succeeded in the development and use of multi-channel XUV diagnostics of high-temperature plasma with use of AXUV detectors manufactured IRD Inc., USA, and also with the diamond detectors developed in TRINITI. Since 1996 within 10 years a number of XUV systems have been created and installed to the following plasma devices: Angara - 5, tokamaks T-10, T-11M (Russia), HL-1M (China), and KTM (Kazakhstan). The most important results were obtained on the Li impurity transport in the plasma column, with the use of Lithium limiters installed in the T-11M and T-10 tokamaks. Key participants of the project have an experience of working in the ISTC of projects ## 447, 2283, 2503.
Ioffe Institute is one of leading Russian research centers conducting R&D semiconductor structures with special properties. Researches of technology of silicon detectors have begun in 70-s' years of the last century and proceed up to present time. These researches, in particular, have been devoted to manufacturing of the silicon diode with the characteristic of "ideal" Shockley diode. Significant progress had been reached in development of original technology of silicon detectors (SPD photodiodes) both for 200-1100 nm spectral range, and for low-energy particles. Also, the pioneer works were done on development of detectors with ultimate noise performance at a level of fundamental restrictions. In cooperation with one of potential project collaborators - Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, a few SPD detectors were tested in wide XUV spectrum range. There is an experience of working in the ISTC project #2630.
Within the framework of given project, Ioffe Institute will produce linear and matrix arrays of detectors for XUV range for high vacuum applications. The proper technology and testing equipment are available. TRINITI will carry out testing and final assembly of pinhole cameras, and total diagnostic system, including the vacuum equipment needed to install it to a tokamak port. Finally the diagnostic will be installed into the T-11M tokamak in TRINITI for investigation of impurity radiation profile evolution in various plasma discharge modes. In other words, manufacturing and researches of detectors will be carried out within the framework of a uniform research-and-production cycle, which in the methodical plan favorably distinguishes the given project.
Collaborators of the project will be able to carry out independent tests on radiation resistance, linearity and spectral characteristics of the detectors developed in the project, if necessary. Also, their assistance could be quite helpful for evaluation of the project results, their applicability in various areas beyond the scope of plasma diagnostic applications.
Major goal of given project is the creation of fast XUV imaging system with the frame time of 10 ms. An advanced technology of SPD detector radiation hardening will be developed, which is quite important both for plasma diagnostics and XUV metrology applications. The developed system could be useful also in astronomical researches, UV lithography, and analytical instrumentation. Also they could be applied as semi-conductor analogue of the bolometer, i.e. the convenient transfer standard for metrological application in laboratories and the research centers.
There is a mutual interest of the collaborators in development, manufacture and delivery of the detectors for metrological application in the XUV range and plasma optical diagnostic systems. Due to the given project "weapon" scientists and engineers will have an opportunity to be involved into research and development in "peaceful" scientific and technical field. The project will allow the Russian "weapon" experts to join closer the international scientific community.
Silicon photodetectors which will be developed in the given project could be applied to a broad area of metrological tasks in a wide spectral range from extreme ultraviolet up to visible light. Thus, the project concerns to the ISTC priority scientific and technical areas: the control of an environment, manufacture of energy and nuclear safety.
Major project tasks to be solved:
Task 1. Design and development of the test 16x16 XUV matrix array detector with minimized inter-element and edge spacing.
Development of the hybrid sub-module will be made with use of so-called Z-technology according to which the electronic circuit board is mounted in a plane, orthogonal in relation to detector array one. Thus SPD linear 2x16 arrays will be mount at the edge of preamplifier board which lateral size match the dimensions of a the array crystal. This approach will provide an opportunity to assemble the 16x16 matrix module (total 256 pixels), reducing to a minimum “blind” spacing between SPD rows and columns, and thus to keep advantages of fast parallel processing of signals – fast response and ultimate sensitivity.
Task 2. Design and development of the pinhole camera for high-vacuum applications, based on the 16x16 XUV matrix array detector and backable up to 150 C temperature.
Major feature of this task is the necessity to provide maximum dense packing of hybrid sub-modules in the matrix module of a format 16x16, and to achieve thus of minimum levels of photo-electric cross-talk between channels, including in the high frequency range. The vacuum part of the device should be made of the materials and components, which are able to sustain a long-term (for a few days) gas desorption in high vacuum at temperature up to 150 C. All this demands require very careful design, stage-by-stage prototyping and testing of separate elements and the whole system.
Task 3. Development and manufacture of the supplementary diagnostic elements (vacuum and electronic equipment, data acquisition system and software). Detector testing in plasma device environment.
Secondary diagnostic elements - vacuum insertion mechanism, electronic power supply units, interfaces, data acquisition system, and the software for data acquisition, visualization and processing will be accomplished. Assembling, debugging and testing will be made in TRINITI on the T-11M tokamak with the use of proper limiters providing the injection of different impurities. Since the basic spectrum of an impurity radiation is concentrated mostly in the XUV-range, and varies quickly following the MHD instabilities in plasmas, such tests are the most adequate for developed diagnostics. The obtained experience will be used for the proper correction and optimization of the diagnostic design and the whole technical approach.
Task 4. Installation and testing of total diagnostic system on the T-11M tokamak. Experimental studies of the impurity transport (Carbon, Lithium, etc.) at various plasma discharge modes.
The basic complexity of the given task is necessity of deep insertion of the pinhole camera into the vacuum port (400-500 mm). Taking into account a parallel operating mode of the big number of analog channels, it is required about 50 flexible electric connections and corresponding vacuum elements, to provide their appropriate shielding and isolation from the tokamak vessel. Also, an opportunity of long-term vacuum baking of at the temperature up to 150 C for gas desorption of all internal surfaces is needed. However, an experience of developing of similar devices obtained earlier in TRINITI seems to be enough to believe in successful solution of this task.
Task 5. Research of radiation hardness and spatial uniformity of detector sensitivity in the XUV spectral range, and its dependence on the conditions of p-n junction formation.
Comparative studies of the matrix detectors developed within the framework of the given project with known systems for an XUV range (AXUV detectors) will be carried out. An excimer laser will be used as a source of powerful UV-radiation (193 nm wavelength KrF laser), and also other sources of radiation (light-emitting diodes and high-temperature plasma). A participation of one of potential collaborators (PTB) would be much helpful, in order to carry out precision measurements and independent test of detector stability, uniformity, and spectral sensitivity.
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