Helminths Prevalence in Tajikistan
Reduction of Helminthes Prevalence among the Population of the Republic of Tajikistan and Sanitation of Environment by Means of Realization of Modern Methods of Diagnostics and Treatment of Helminths
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
3 Approved without Funding
Republican Center of Tropical Diseases (RCTD), Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Hopital de la Croix Rousse, France, Lyon
Project summaryAccording to the data of the World Health Organization about 4,5 billon persons in the world are suffering from parasitic diseases with 99% of helminths. Experts estimate that from 95% - 99% of population are infected with parasites, but they do not know about this. The specialists are troubled that at the present time the helminths prevalence among the population of different countries has not slightly difference between the evaluated status in 60th years. Helminths are an extensive disease group, substantially, defining population’s health status on the whole. Helminths have a wide range of clinic characters: from asymptomatic to more serious threatening for human life. First of all, it is necessary to note that the most prevalent place of localization of helminths is a human intestine. Helminths can cause the mechanical damage of parasitized tissues which accompanies by inflammatory process and dysfunction of organ. A vital importance has not strong, but chronic bleeding from damaged intestine walls which is cause of anemia development. Pathogenic influence of helminths on organism concerned not only with damage of that organs where they are located, but with all organism of ill person. It is necessary to note that to a great degree pathogenic influence of helminths reflects on poor pregnant women and children with poor nutrition. Invasion with helminths reduces the intensity of labor activity at old people, this is a cause of considerable medico-social and economical damage. Infection with helminths adversely effects on physical and mental development of child. Among the children was evaluated a memory weakening, shortness of temper, poor results, inhibition of growth and gain of body weight. Helminths are most prevalent and mass morbidity in the Republic of Tajikistan, at the present time around 25-30 sorts of parasites are danger for human. Among the most important factors, determining the helmenths prevalence are: insufficient hygiene and sanitary education of population, high level of environment pollution with helminths eggs as a result of overflow of not sanitated sewage and flows, poor quality of drinking water, low level of sanitary culture of local population (especially in the rural area) also uncontrolled migration of population. Within the last five years has been estimating an intensive growth of helminths prevalence among the population of the republic. If in 2002 the number of ill persons as per annual official strategic reports made 8881 causes (126 for 100000 population) then in 2006 this figure increased up to 21685 causes (309 for 100000 population) which is more than two and half times, from them 80% of morbidity was evaluated among the children under 14 years old. Within 2004-2005ss have been conducted the surveys on detection of helminths among the children in the ecological geographic zones of Tajikistan. The survey showed that around 2/3 children at the age from 6-14 yeas old infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Unfavourable sanitary conditions of life of population promote increasing the morbidity level. Non-observation of elementary sanitation norms, joint use of personal hygiene objects, irregular use of soap during washing hands and cleaners for dishes, bed-cloths, body-cloths, kitchen and bathroom also contribute to the prevalence of helminths. Infection of person with parasites takes place at use of bad fried or boiled meat, non-observation of freezing conditions of meat foods (trichinosis, taeniarhynchus saginatus) and bad handling of fish (opisthorchosis, clonorchiosis). National traditions: use of food from one dish by all family, lack of dishes at the public events, and also low professional level of staff of regional parasitological laboratories, poor skilled work on diagnose of parasitic diseases laboratory due to the loss of material resources and breach of communication between the regional and central laboratories impact on level of helminths prevalence. At the present time a reduction of helminths in Tajikistan is limited by treatment of passively detected sauces of diseases. And needed preventive and anti-epidemic events do not realize due to the lack of material and technical provision of laboratory services. Operating parasitological laboratories in the most districts of the country use the outmoded methods of survey since they have not access to the modern methods for diagnostics such as serological detection method, DNA-diagnostics with use of PCA, ester – formalin enrichment (on the basis of flotation and precipitation of helminths eggs) and modern sanitary - parasitological methods which contribute to the most efficient and early diagnostics of diseases. There is lack of specialist on detection of helminths in the most districts of the republic, and also population of rural areas has not access to the medical services. In this connection the real figures of infection with helminths greatly exceeds the figures of official statistic.
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