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Supercritical Fluids in Radwaste Treatment


Supercritical Fluids – Basis of Fundamentally New Technologies of Radioactive Waste Conversion

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-RWT/Radioactive Waste Treatment/Environment
  • CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (IONKh), Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Moscow State University / Department of Chemistry, Russia, Moscow\nAll-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Non-Organic Materials named after A. Bochvar, Russia, Moscow


  • SRI International / Stanford Research Institute, USA, CA, Menlo Park\nJapan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Japan, Ibaraki\nUniversity of Idacho / College of Letters and Science, USA, ID, Moscow\nInstitut für Radiochemie, Germany, Dresden\nArgonne National Laboratory (ANL) / Energy System Division, USA, IL, Argonne\nForschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt / Institut für Nukleare Entsorgungstechnik, Germany, Karlsruhe

Project summary

The Project objective is the development of a scientific basis to utilize supercritical fluids in technologies of reprocessing radioactive waste (RAW) from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). The study of oxidation and reduction reactions in fluid phases with complex formation and separation of ions, will make it possible to elaborate new technologies for radioactive and toxic waste reprocessing. Supercritical fluids (SCF) have abnormal penetration, dilution, extraction and reaction capacities. Thus, it is possible to realize the principles of the creation of practically waste-free and environmentally friendly processes (no release of toxic substances).

The potential reprocessing of different forms of radioactive waste from NPPs by supercritical fluids has already been shown, yet a number of problems remain, including those of a fundamental nature, precluding the practical application of SCF for reprocessing radioactive waste from NPPs. Implementation of this Project will allow the elaboration of the scientific basis of ecological safety technologies of reprocessing RAW by SCF and the investigation of the following:

Chemistry of the interaction of different types of SCF processes with RAW components;

Distribution of fragmental and long-life radionuclides in systems on the basis of the SCF series as fluid-liquid and fluid-solid;

Regularity of oxidation processes of disposed solvents and sorbents in SC-water;

Possible decontamination of certain materials by reactants on the basis of SCF (complex formation, oxidation and reduction);

Ways to utilize disposed solvents and sorbents with SCF;

Comparative analysis of processes with the application of SCF;

Possible application of SCF of different types for reprocessing RAW from NPPs (solid, liquid) will be justified on the basis of the performed research. A pilot facility will be manufactured for investigation of RAW processing with SCF application and operation technology will be developed as а result of the Project.


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