Artificial Kidney with Dialysate Regeneration
Research, Development and Manufacturing of Hemodialysis Machine with Dialysate Regeneration
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Komarkov D A
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore
Project summaryRenal insufficiency is one of the most urgent problems in nephrology.
As international statistics data show, the number of patients with renal insufficiency is increasing in the whole world. They can survive owing to hemodialysis.
This tendency results from several factors, including the increasing number of old sick people, increasing of life period of the population in Western Europe, America, Japan and other countries.
Another factor, determining the growth of patients with renal insufficiency, is progress in modern medicine, particularly, in dialysis.
The modern dialysis technology makes it possible to apply it practically to any patient.
Engineering equipment of artificial blood purification is intended for urgent assistance in case of renal insufficiency, caused by intoxication, burn, injury, incompatible blood transfusion, radiation injury or for long (15-20 years and more) life support of patients with chronic kidney decease by regular (2-3 times a week) 4-5 hour cleaning procedures.
In modern equipment for hemodialysis (artificial kidney machine) normalizing effect on human organism is in regulation of electrolyte and acid alkaline balance, its detoxication and removal of water excess. This is reached with the single (without regeneration) use of dialysate, which after its interaction with blood in dialyzator goes into sewer system. For one procedure of extrarenal blood purification by hemodialysis it is required about 150 liters of dialysate automatically prepared by hemodialysis device itself by dose mixing of highly purified tab water and special concentrate that requires additional equipment for dialysis centers. Such equipment is expensive and bulky. Thus this procedure is usually performed in stationary hospitals, and this is inconvenient for patients, since its constricts their life. During recent years in various countries people work on creation of portable equipment for dialysis and try to decrease amount of dialysate, for which the system for dialysate regeneration is being developed [3-6].
Regeneration of spent dialysate provides much more autonomy for hemodialysis machine, allows less money for engineering equipment, better use of hospitals and less amount of dialyzing solution (3-5 liters for a procedure). It also provides a better psychological state of a patient, since he does not depend on a machine or hospital. And the main point is that it significantly decreases (a factor of 25-40) a volume of foreign artificial medium (dialysate).
All this gives grounds for necessity to create a portable kidney machine with regeneration of dialysate, which will be widely applied in medical practice, including mobile medical complexes.
Under the ISTC project 972-99 EMP Avangard carries out the work on creation of the unit for electrochemical dialysate regeneration based on the method of electrochemical oxidation of nitrogen-bearing metabolites with the following sorption removal of byproducts, produced during electrochemical oxidation and other renal metabolites that are not utilized in an electrolyzer. By this time we have finished design documentation development, prepared an experimental sample and are testing unit operation ability.
The final project goal is to create hemodialysis machine with regeneration of dialysate,using as a basic unit the unit for electrochemical regeneration:
While performing work on this project we are planning to solve the following problems:
– to perform a patent study;
– to make a design study;
– to develop design documentation;
– to fabricate a pilot sample;
– to perform medical tests;
– to study operation ability of the machine and regeneration efficiency of dialysate;
– to prepare materials for getting patents based on work results;
– to get clinical approval of the machine efficiency, using scientific basis of foreign collaborators.
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