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Airfield Pollution and Safety Problems

#1007


Problems of Environment Ecological Pollution and Safety while Airfields Operation and their Solution

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-MRA/Modelling and Risk Assessment/Environment

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
01.06.1997

Leading Institute
JSC GIPRONIIAVIAPROM, Russia, Moscow

Supporting institutes

  • Research Institute of Aviation Systems, Russia, Moscow

Project summary

As a rule, owing to historical conditions lots of airfields are located in the immediate neighborhood of the densely populated town districts.

Airfields in general and especially airfields of large-size airports are serious sources of environment pollution due to harmful emission, noise effects and vehicle accidents in case of aborted takeoff and emergency landing which have a destruction effect on buildings, environment and people's health.

Thus at the development of aviation engineering and urban sprawl a problem of coexistence of a town and an airfield has arisen which is to be solved in terms of environment ecological conditions and safety. Solution of this problem is based on forecasting the influence of airfield operation on environment, which in turn specifies the tasks of calculation methods of ecological pollution parameters and vehicle safety.

Nowadays there is no complete solution of the indicated problem both in Russia and abroad. Separate developments in private problems are known, but they don 4 allay to imagine in general the real picture of the surrounding airfield areas pollution.

The purpose of the present Project is to develop methods of calculating parameters of environment ecological pollution as a result of operation activities of airfields and a new concept of vehicles safety during takeoff and landing in case of using highly reliable technical devices.

In the course of the Project fulfillment investigations using experimental materials on propagation of noise and harmful components of gas jets for the stages of vehicles parking, taxing, takeoff and landing will be earned out as well as permissible limits of ecological pollution of the area for any airfields located in different-climatic conditions will be determined. Moreover, a special attention will be paid to the analysis of vehicle emergency overruns resulting in vehicle damage, fuel spread, buildings breakdown, explosions, fires, etc. Equally to the specified above, theoretical and experimental investigations as well as validation of efficiency and reliability of technical devices, new for civil aviation, - emergency arresting systems (EAC) installed at the ends of a runway and engaging vehicles in the case of their overrun, will be carried out.

The problem of the environment ecological pollution is resolved into the following components: emission and noise. First, for each component a single stationary source and a field (distribution) of parameters determining component action (parameters entering into characteristics of area pollution or emission sources) are considered. Distribution of toxical matter concentration in the near-ground layer of the atmosphere taking into consideration ambient conditions including temperature, humidity, pressure, air speed can be received by a calculation method using experimental data. A solution of Neas-dynamics equations is a basis of the calculation methods. Then models of superposition of parameter fields from several sources are built in succession.

Parallel with this, a 'general model of the airfield is built, which includes stochastic and deterministic parts. The deterministic part includes a geometrical model with a runway distinguished, basic routes, vehicle types, etc. The other part of the model is stochastic and depends on the adopted laws of parameter distribution (normal, uniform, gamma-distribution, etc.). It also includes operation modes of vehicle engines, ambient conditions, operation technology of aviation facilities, etc.

A simulation model for calculation of ecologial pollution variants is formed from the general model and allows analyzing the results from the point of view of economy and nature protective measures.

The new conception of vehicle safety envisages the substantiation of calculation of runway lengths without taking into account aborted takeoff and emergency landing. For this purpose, development of a new takeoff/landing model is required for different airfield classes and vehicle types. The following components are included: civil aviation EAS dynamics, engaging device dynamics, a model of loading the main landing gear legs in process of braking. It should be specially noted that the theory of calculation of aircraft arresting units including a wave model of loading an elastic wire was developed for the specific schemes of engagement (boundary conditions) and is to be defined more exactly, thus the development of own numerical calculation methods is required.

Reliability of vehicle engagement by the universal engaging device requires an experimental test, so full-scale experiments need to be performed.

As a result of the Project the following items will be carried out:


- machine methods of calculating parameters of environment ecological pollution of an airfield and surrounding areas will be developed;
- region ecological maps with different concentration of harmful matters and noise effect depending on vehicle types, the number of takeoff/landing operations, and climatic conditions will be represented;
- recommendations for the permissible quantity of takeoff/landing operations at the airfield to meet requirements of sanitary regulations of population residency on the surrounding areas will be given;
- for the conception of safety on airfields equipped with EAS, theoretical base will be developed and validation presented; full-scale testing of this conception will be fulfilled and recommendations for practical use of EAS at airfields will be given.
- recommendations for the practical using of the emergency arresting systems in different class airfields will be given.

At the present moment the organization-developers have certain search materials in this problem, which requires further deployment, systematization, complex solution and experimental approbation of the technical means.

The organization-developers have patents of Russian Federation on a number of directions of the offered project. One of the patterns given to the construction of the universal emergency arresting system for civil aviation received the diploma and Gold medal at Brussels World Salon of inventions. "Evrica - 97".

The Project results can be used by aviacompanies and airports, nature saving organs, municipal authorities and town-planning organizations.

The evaluation methods of the ecological influence of the airfield unit operations and means of the ecological consequences prevention from the vehicle emergency overruns can become a subject of constant attention of different international organizations, private firms, companies and et al, which by taking a role of the collaborators at the project fulfillment process will be able to contact its developers. Similar contacts from one side will help project participants to join in the analog searches in other countries and avoid duplication of the earlier undertaken efforts in given area, and from the other side will allow collaborators to install business connections with competent scientists and engineers of given project and also receive access to the unique materials and experimental installations with the purpose of possible further commercialization of the results. In the total of such contacts the advance cooperation form between collaborators and project developers will be produced. First of all this cooperation will envelop the problems of information exchange, mutual granting of materials, recalls on the technical reports, cooperation at the preparation of results to commercialization after the project completion and etc.

In this connection the research institutes, private firms and companies, separate experts from the USA, Europe Union, Japan, Norway and South Korea are invited to take part in present project as collaborators.


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