Membrane-Microwave Complex for Destruction of Toxic Organic Chemicals
Development of Membrane-Sorption Microwave Complex for Destruction of High-Stable Toxic Organic Chemicals
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
3 Approved without Funding
State Enterprise Krasnaya Zvezda, Russia, Moscow
- A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russia, Moscow
- Graver Technologies, UK, Glasgow\nInstitut National Polytechniques de Lorraine / ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DES INDUSTRIES CHIMIQUES de NANCY, France, Nancy
Project summaryThe project is aimed at the development of laboratory complex consisting of the membrane – sorption installation for concentration of toxic high-stable organic chemicals (phenyl benzenes, polychlorsubstituted aromatic compounds, including dioxine, a number of toxic pesticides, herbicides etc.) and the unit for their subsequent annihilation (decomposition) under microwave electromagnetic irradiation.
The development of comprehensive and reliable methods of destruction of chemically resistant highly toxic pollutions is a very important modern problem. Extremely hazardous sources of continuous contamination of the environment are the wastes of highly-stable and volatile polychlorinated derivatives of aromatic number, bi-phenol compounds and other stable condensed aromatic chemicals generated while the burning industrial and domestic waste products at waste-burning plants, as a result of some technological processes or in emergency situations.
The real danger of such pollution comes from continuous generation of toxic compounds when burning raw materials, some industrial products, construction materials and organic household wastes. Besides, dioxine-like and other volatile aromatic derivatives appear as an intermediate substance in production of herbicides, they are present in the wastes of metallurgical, coal-chemistry and pulp and paper industry. The problem arises also when using thermal methods for utilization of expired medicines.
High stability of toxic compounds (about one year half-life), along with their ability to be easily sublimed to gas phase, facilitates high probability of long-term pollution of large enough areas. At the same time, toxicity of the above mentioned compounds is extremely high and characterized by multilateral physiologically hazardous effects on human body and the environment. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) clearly describes dioxine as a serious public health threat. The EPA report has confirmed that dioxine is a cancer hazard to people.
The choice of appropriate methods of destruction of bi-phenol and dioxine-like chemicals is limited.
One of the existing methods of annihilation of possible contamination sources (e.g. household waste) together with toxic chemicals is burning of wastes in high-temperature ground-based chamber of a rocket engine. In such a chamber the burning of toxic compounds is carried out for a long enough time at temperatures exceeding 3000 0C.
As disadvantages of this method the following should be mentioned: high energy consumption, expensive construction materials which must be capable to maintain such temperatures for a long time, burning out large amount of expensive fuel, as well as ecological hazard coming from toxic impurities in exhaust gases of rocket fuel combustion.
Chemical methods of neutralization of most toxic representatives of dioxine-like number based on de-chlorination cannot be considered satisfactory either.
It should also be noted that nowadays there are not enough effective and reasonable methods of destruction of biphenyl and condensed aromatic compounds because of their chemical inertness caused by high degree of conjunction of limitless bonds in aromatic cores, while in dioxine-like chemicals high stability of the bonds is amplified by existence of donor chloral substitution in symmetrical positions of the molecule.
The purpose of the proposed project is the development of energy saving and effective method of destruction of highly stable molecules of the aromatic number, including dioxine derivatives.
The pioneering approach to this problem is the development of the installation which incorporates the combination of membrane concentration of high-toxic organic chemicals, their sorption by catalytically active adsorbents having large adsorption capacity and simultaneously high absorption coefficient of microwave radiation, and subsequent destruction of adsorbed products under the microwave irradiation with wavelengths in the range from 3 to 15 cm.
For the fulfillment of this task it is planed to develop the installation based on the principle of concentration of high-toxic organic compounds with the membrane-sorption technique where adsorbents are chosen to be extremely porous, catalytically active and having high absorption coefficient of electromagnetic microwave radiation. All these factors will provide catalytically promotional decomposition of high-stable chemicals under the influence of microwave radiation.
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