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Atmospheric Pollution

#KR-1968


Atmospheric Pollution and its influence on Environment

Tech Area / Field

  • ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
  • ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
  • PHY-OPL/Optics and Lasers/Physics

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
29.08.2011

Leading Institute
Kyrgyz-Russian Slavonic University, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Collaborators

  • Polish Academy of Science / Institute of Physical Chemistry, Poland, Warsaw\nGeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany, Potsdam\nUniversity of Sciences and Technologies of Lille, France, Lille

Project summary

1. Purposes and Scientific Program

The purpose of the project is research of aerosol and trace gas influence on variability of climate and air quality in the Central Asia.

For achievement of the purpose the scientific program includes following tasks:

  • In-situ measurements of optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosol and trace gases at various types of pollution transport to the Central Asia;
  • Numerical calculations of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) depending on type of pollution transport;
  • Development of calculation methodology of atmospheric layers heating (cooling) rate at pollution transport from various sources;
  • Estimations of aerosol pollution and atmospheric trace gases influence on climatic variability and air quality of the region.

2. State of the Art and Importance of the Proposed Project

The problem of anthropogenic pollution of atmosphere, actual throughout the last century is getting daunting sharpness. The reason of it is not only in indefatigable influence of human activity on environment, but also in constantly increasing of scientific and practical knowledge of pollution consequences. Due to atmospheric transport, considerable atmospheric life-time, photochemical transformation during the transport, some gas and aerosol pollution and products of their decomposition are spread on huge distances from the sources of their initial emission into atmosphere. Nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds which are emitted into atmosphere in a large amounts as a result of human activity (for example, automobile and industrial emissions) promote generation of such kind of pollution, as photochemical smog which negatively influences on people health.

Various methods and approaches are used for studying of atmospheric pollution and its consequences. The key role in this problem is played by measurements of gas and aerosol components of atmosphere. Development of satellite methods of measurements makes possible to study processes of pollution transport on a global scale. The satellite data is almost unique source of regular information about gas and aerosol composition of atmosphere over sparsely populated regions. However up to the present time the satellite measurements of atmospheric pollution in troposphere and, especially, in ground level, meet considerable difficulties. In this case, the ground-based measurements are irreplaceable.

Studying of distribution and spread in the lower troposphere of such gas components as nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide and aerosol is of great scientific and practical interest. They serve as reliable indicators of pollution of the lower troposphere also have a number of important properties doing study of these trace components of atmosphere extremely actual.

Nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) are pollutants with short life-time. However, firstly, they can emitted in atmosphere as a result of photochemical decomposition of more complex nitrogen-containing compounds which are transported on the big distances until there will be conditions for their decomposition (usually it is higher temperature and light exposure). Secondly, life-time of nitrogen-containing pollutants is much longer than for each separate component, which is also stimulating their long-range transport. Necessity of monitoring of nitrogen oxides is caused not only by their role of indicators of anthropogenic pollution of atmosphere. They play an important role in photochemistry of ozone and, depending on content of peroxiradicals in atmosphere, can lead both to destruction or intensive photochemical formation of ozone.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is harmful to human in high concentrations. Besides it, it serves as an important chemical sink of atmospheric hydroxyl OH – one of the most important "cleaners" of atmosphere. Carbon monoxide has considerable life-time in atmosphere and, thus, it can be transported on large distances from sources, being at the same time, along with nitrogen oxides, an indicator of pollution of the lower atmosphere and tracer of transport.

Aerosol pollution of atmosphere is one of constant direct threats to life expectancy and people health. Long-term inhalation of pollution particles in the form of silicon dioxide dust (dust particles with sizes less then 10 microns) to the respiratory insufficiency leading to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the aerosol pollution of atmosphere, being continuous and long-term factor, essentially influences sustainability of local and regional ecosystems.

Solution of the problems stated in this project, will meet a lack of high-quality data as one of reason of uncertainty in estimation of pollution influence on environment.

3. Competence of Participants

The project will be carried out by scientific group of High-altitude scientific station (HASS), which is a scientific institution of joint management of Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (KRSU) and Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS). ). Lidar station Teplokluchenka (LST) KRSU is a part of HASS as a structural unit.

The group has a wide experience in the field of measurements and analysis of nitrogen oxides, carbon oxide and aerosol content in atmosphere and in development of spectrometric equipment and methods of measurement of these impurities content. Regular measurements of aerosol content, both in atmospheric column and at ground-level are carried out at LST.

The project executor’s team includes specialists in optical methods of research of atmospheric aerosol and statistical regularities in geophysical processes, in theoretical and numerical methods of physics and chemistry of atmosphere, interactions of solar radiation with matter and includes 1 doctor and 7 candidates of sciences.

4. Workload, Structure, Approaches, and Methodology

Methodology of the project is based on carrying out of monitoring of gas and aerosol pollution at their transboundary and long-range transport to the region from various sources by means of created within the framework of #KR-1522 ISTC project measuring complex of joint lidar and photometric measurements on the basis of LST, and spectrometric measurements of total NO2, CO and aerosol at Zvenogorod scientific station and Kislovodsk HASS.

The scientific program is stated in the form of the separate tasks which are in aggregate providing achievement of the purposes of the project and including:

  • In-situ measurements of optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosol and trace gases at various types of pollution transport to the Central Asia;
  • Numerical calculations of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) depending on type of pollution transport;
  • Development of calculation methodology of atmospheric layers heating (cooling) rate at pollution transport from various sources;
  • Estimations of aerosol pollution and atmospheric trace gases influence on climatic variability and air quality of the region.

5. Expected Results and Their Application

The proposed project is related to fundamental researches in the field of physics and chemistry of atmosphere and is directed, first of all, on obtaining of quantitative estimations of aerosol pollution and atmospheric trace gases influence on climatic variability and air quality of the Central Asia, development of methods of remote monitoring of pollution in lower atmosphere.

Numerical estimations of radiative fluxes in various layers of atmosphere will be used to estimate the aerosol radiative forcing depending on type of pollution transport.

Calculation methodology of heating (cooling) rate of different atmospheric layers at pollution trasnport from various sources will be used for calculation of temperature mode change;

Estimations of aerosol pollution and trace gases transport influences on climatic variability and air quality will be received;

Results of in-situ measurements of optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosol and trace gases at various types of pollution transport to the Central Asia will be used in all calculations.

6. International Collaboration and Role of Foreign Collaborators

The scientists involved in the project, will close co-operate with noted scientists in the international community on the physics of atmosphere and atmospheric chemistry, for example, with collaborators of the project - Dr. Georg Schettler (Germany), Dr. Krzystof Rudzinski (Poland) and prof. Yugo Kanaja (Japan), providing possibilities for achievement of professional prestige and advancement. Cooperation with collaborator of the project prof. Philippe Goloub will be realized on lines of the network PHOTONS/AERONET within the framework of ACTRIS European project (http://www.actris.net/), realized at present time.

Preparation of joint publications by results of researches will be one of the forms of co-operation with foreign collaborators.

Results of work will be represented at seminars and conferences. Annual and final reports of the project will be presented for comments to foreign collaborators.

7. Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives

The basic executors of the project were weapon-scientists in various areas.

Participation in the project will allow this scientists group to use scientific ideas, technical development and experience, received at realization of works on military area, for developing of peace technology directed on formation of environment monitoring system and effective using of natural resources.

Work of scientific staff together with GALION global lidar network, UNEP/NOAA АВС "Aerosol-chemistry-climate" observatory network and regional CIS-LiNet network will be way of integration into activity of international scientific community.

Expected results will be useful to international community and correspond with interests of countries in the field of environmental control.


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The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.

 

ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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