Pollutant and Greenhouse Gases over Tien-Shan
Monitoring Variability of Pollution and Climate Forming Gas Species in the Atmosphere over Northern Tien-Shan, Kyrgyzstan
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
- ENV-MIN/Monitoring and Instrumentation/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Kulikov G G
Kyrgyz State National University / Institute of Fundamental Sciences, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- VNIITF, Russia, Chelyabinsk reg., Snezhinsk
- NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. / Colorado Research Associates Division, USA, CO, Boulder\nMax-Planck Society / Max-Plank-Institute fur Biogeochemie, Germany, Jena\nWorld Meteorological Organization, Switzerland, Geneva\nUS Department of Commerce / National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory., USA, CO, Boulder\nService d'Aeronomie, France, Verrieres le Buisson\nRadio Atmospheric Science Center of Kyoto University, Japan, Kyoto\nTohoku University / Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies, Japan, Sendai\nUniversity of Cologne / Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, Germany, Köln
Project summaryThe purpose of the project is the monitoring of variability of gas components polluting an atmosphere and influencing the climate changes, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), total content and surface ozone concentration (O3), carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at the Issyk-Kul station located in the region of Northern Tien-Shan for experimental study and for improvement of the existing theories and parameterizations of multiform variability and long-term trends of gas components, caused by the natural dynamic and anthropogenous factors. Taking into account a problem of diminution of the ozone content in the atmosphere and a climate warming connected with an increase in the content of greenhouse gases (in particular CO2 and H2O), their concentrations in various regions of the Earth can essentially be different from their global mean values.
The monitoring minor gas components and their dynamic and anthropogenous variability will be fulfilled with spectroscopic devices modernized during the previous project KR-157, and also with devices, which are supposed to be bought and created during the proposed project at the Issyk-Kul station (Northern coast of Issyk-Kul lake, 42.6 deg. N, 77 deg. E, 1,640 m. above a sea level). The great many of clear solar days here guarantees high efficiency of a spectroscopic method used for the monitoring of minor gas components at the atmosphere. Region of observations is located in a central part of the Eurasian continent on a boundary between flatness and mountain masses of the Tien-Shan and Pamir. Western transport of air masses dominant in this area is exposed to considerable orographic perturbations giving rise to a complex of dynamic processes, influencing gas component variability in the atmosphere.
The importance of monitoring atmospheric gas components at the Issyk-Kul station is determined by essential distinctions of their variability above the region of Northern Tien-Shan in comparison with global mean variability of the components. Such distinctions exhibit themselves, first of all, in anomalies of variability, which existence was shown by the results of the spectroscopic measurements, which have been carried out at the Issyk-Kul station, since 80-s.
To achieve the goals of the project the following problems will be solved:
– Developing, manufacturing and laboratory testing of the spectroscopic devices for measuring a vertical profile of ozone concentration in the atmosphere and for measurings of total contents of methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO) and of nitrous oxide (N2O); field tests of developed devices and estimation of their reliability.
– Developing of algorithms and computer codes for handling observational data on vertical O3 distribution and total contents of SO2, CH4, CO and N2O in the atmosphere.
– Performing of synchronous observations of the total contents of atmospheric gas admixtures (O3, CO2, H2O, СН4, SO2, СO, N2O) and of boundary layer concentrations of ozone at a network of observation cites located in Obninsk (Russia) and at station Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan), for a study of long-range transport of polluting gases of anthropogenous and natural origin from industrial areas to the mountain region of Central Asia with the help of building-up transportation trajectories of trasser gases.
– Making a network of mobile optical devices for determination of movements of optically active gas species, connected with natural dynamic processes and with pollution distributions; realization of campaigns of synchronous measurings of ozone and aerosol optical depth at three stations remote on distances of tens of kilometers from each other.
– Developing the computer codes to determine the characteristics of meteorological parameters variability and of the parameters of planetary and gravity waves in the tropo-stratosphere over mountain region of Central Asia from the meteorological database of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) at Boulder (USA) and from the high resolution measurements of temperature oscillations with low-orbit GPS satellites GPS/MET (USA) and CHAMP (Germanium). Comparison of observed variations of gas admixtures in the mountain area of Central Asia with the data about meteorological parameters, wave activity and tropopause variability in the tropo-stratosphere.
– Analyzing the results of optical observations of gas admixtures (including measurings of their vertical profiles) in Shigaraki, near Japanese MU radar measuring winds and waves at altitudes 2-25 km; improving the theory of wave variations of gas admixtures under the influence of planetary and gravity waves and their parameterizations for inclusion into numerical models of general circulation of the atmosphere and global transport of impurities.
– Systemating and analyzing of the obtained experimental data (including results of the previous years), making databases and transferring them to the World Data Centers.
As a result of the project realization the following basic results are expected:
– Measuring devises for monitoring concentration of boundary layer ozone and its vertical profiles, contents of the basic polluting atmospheric gases (SO2, CO, CH4 and N2O) will be developed.
– Computer codes for evaluations of vertical profiles of ozone and total contents of SO2, CO, CH4 and N2O in the atmosphere will be created.
– Real time data about the content of optically minor gas components (O3, CO2, H2O, SO2, CO, CH4 and N2O) in the atmosphere above Northern Tien-Shan during 2002-2004 will be obtained.
– Results of synchronous measurings of polluting gases on a network of the Russian and Asian sites of observations, trajectories of transport of these gases from industrial regions to Northern Tien-Shan will be obtained.
– The computer codes for deriving meteorological parameters and wave characteristics from the NCAR meteorological database and from the MST radar data, which are necessary for the comparison with observed variations of gas admixtures in the tropo-stratosphere will be created.
– Computer codes for estimating of atmospheric wave parameters from data of the low-orbit GPS satellites GPS/MET (USA) and CHAMP (Germany) will be developed.
– Regression models for the description of connection of atmospheric gas admixtures contents with meteorological parameters and characteristics of wave motions will be created.
– Database of observational results will be obtained.
– Quantitative characteristics of trends of studied atmospheric gas component will be obtained.
– Estimation of anthropogenous component in variability of polluting and climate forming gas admixtures, in the atmosphere above the mountain region of Northern Tien-Shan will be given.
The realization of the proposed project will allow us to get the operative information concerning variability of gas components influencing atmospheric pollution and climate, also to supplement and to systematize experimental data obtained earlier, and to improve statistical and numerical models for determination and prediction of multiscale variability and long-term trends of gas component.
The monitoring of atmospheric composition in the region of Northern Tien-Shan is one of major problems, which solution is of substantial interest as for Kyrgyz Republic as for neighbour states of Central Asia, and for other mountain regions of the Earth.
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