Study of Small-Size Industrial Shaped Charges' Jets
Study of Peculiarities of Small-Size Industrial Shaped Charges' Jet Formation, Evolution and Penetration into Various Materials
Tech Area / Field
- PHY-NGD/Fluid Mechanics and Gas Dynamics/Physics
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Zalouzhny A A
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov
- Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore\nDynamit Nobel, Germany, Troisdorf
Project summaryThe purpose of the project is to conduct experimental and theoretical investigations in order to develop a semi-empirical model of shaped charge jet formation, evolution and penetration into sedimentaries with various physical and chemical properties, to identify the principles of low-loss and deep-penetration shaped charge jets in order to make perforations of high hydrodynamic quality in oil-and-gas bearing bed sedimentaries.
Shaped charge perforators with charges based on liners made using powder metallurgy methods are widely used in the oil and gas production industry of today. The typical perforation capability of the perforator shaped charges available in the world is ~ 500-600 mm. Along with this, however, there are known a few examples of successful development of charges having higher perforation capability. Such advanced perforation capability has been achieved mainly due to the charge geometry improvement within the framework of the existing level of manufacturing technologies and due to the unique features of the liner material. Application of improved configurations, including unconventional ones, makes it possible to increase energy extraction from an explosive charge and enhance energy distribution over the jet by increasing the energy delivered by the jet’s tip. This results in the higher energy fraction delivered deep into the perforation.
The scientific concept of the project is that the outcome of experimental and theoretical investigations under the project will enable development of basic principles of industrial shaped charge development.
In order to materialize this concept, the scope of the project will include the following tasks:
1. Identify equations of state for the composite materials used in liner production under high dynamic loads. These equations are necessary for computer modeling of shaped charge jet formation and evolution.
2. Obtain a collection of reliable information (by radiography, streak-camera imaging, oscillography) in order to test the techniques for numerical jet modeling.
3. Collect data for technique development (2-D, engineering, semi-empiric). These techniques are required to describe jet evolution prior to its particulation. The dynamics of composite jet particulation (volume particulation) differs from that of high-ductility metal jets. Nevertheless, according to some references, specific characteristics of composite liners (in charge caliber) exceed the achievements of copper liners, even as applied to high-tech coppers. Obviously, this contradiction might be attributed to the deficiency of experimental data, which makes it impossible to declare these adequate for sure.
4. Study the peculiarities of jet interaction with test target components. Today there are practically no experimental data available on the dynamics of jet penetration into standard targets, including critical velocities of penetration into concrete and sedimentary targets and their dependency on target features. One needs to identify the relation between the penetrating jet’s kinetic energy expenditure and the diameter of the perforation; determine perforation efficiency response to the effects of hydrostatic pressure; reveal the presence (absence) of shaped charge jet focusing (higher jet density in the axis region) and interruption by shock wave reflections from boundaries.
5. Reveal technological deviations that determine radial velocity components of the jet propagating in the wall, and evaluate their effect on the perforation depth and diameter.
To describe these processes with sufficient accuracy, one needs to understand in detail the effects of numerous factors and know a wide range of parameters that sometimes cannot be measured easily. Therefore, numerical models of the processes are to be supplemented with appropriate systematically obtained empiric data. Such a comprehensive approach including computational and experimental methods will yield a semi-empiric model and an optimization program enabling effective development of next-generation perforator shaped charges to be used in the oil and gas industry and to have pre-determined characteristics both in terms of the geometry and in terms of holes perforated in oil and gas bearing bed rocks.
RFNC-VNIIEF has a wide experience in the development of complex explosive devices and possesses a unique collection of techniques to numerically model explosion processes, study and develop new materials, including explosive compounds, and experimental facilities to test explosive devices. The authors of the project working at VNIIEF have gained a lot of experience in high-velocity gas-dynamic flow measurements and high-speed jet penetration into various materials.
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