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Combustion Processes in Pyrotechnic Materials


Investigation of the Chemical Transition Behind the Shock Front in Pyrotechnic Materials by D-U Diagram Method

Tech Area / Field

  • MAT-ALL/High Performance Metals and Alloys/Materials
  • MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov


  • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA, CA, Livermore\nTNO Defence, Security and Safety, The Netherlands, Rijswijk

Project summary

Proposed project is devoted to research of chemical transition behind shock front in pyrotechnic materials by the method of experimental-calculation definition of D-U, Р-U and Р-V diagrams, to an establishment of threshold D, U, Р values at which there are chemical transformations in a mode of pyrotechnic mixtures (PTM) components burning (oxidation-reduction reactions).

Presence of exothermal reactions with allocation of thermal energy from 2 kJ/g up to 10 kJ/g, (such PTM will be objects of research), behind shock front and rise in temperature of substance up to 4500 К opens new opportunities of measurement thermal expansion volumetric value factor, selection of the condition equation taking into account chemical reactions behind shock front, kinetic constants of interaction of PTM components under high pressures and temperatures. D-U diagrams for PTM will be received by a method of reflection, with measurement by an electro contact method of time of passage by a shock wave of the pressed PTM sample of the certain thickness.

Other U, Р, V parameters will be defined taking into account known shock-wave parameters in striker and the designed speed of a shock wave in a PTM sample. For realization of measurements charges with a flat detonation wave which is created either by foam polyester lens, or cone shell made of aluminum foil, dispersed by products of explosion of a thin cone made of explosive materials (EM) will be developed. EM charges due to application of EM layer of different thickness and due to a variation of backlashes between EM charge butt and a striker plate will have six levels of parameters (pressure in aluminum striker will change from 5 gPa up to 30 gPa). During some experiments PTM samples will be loaded with a shock wave in preservation chambers, with the following chemical and X-ray analysis of the received samples. In areas of pressure, exceeding threshold values, with the help of manganin gauges of resistance the structure of shock front with measurement of time of chemical interaction of PTM components behind shock front will be determined.

As objects of research two-componential reacting systems SuO-Al, Ti-C, КСIО4-Аl, WО3-Zr and others are most interesting. For these PTM components percussive adiabates are known, so it is easier to calculate percussive adiabates of mixes without taking into account chemical reactions behind shock front. Percussive adiabates of reactions end-products are known also, for example, Аl2О3, ТiС, КСl, ZrО2. These systems are well investigated in a burning mode, specific energy-release, temperature of ignition, adiabatic temperature of burning are known.

As a whole, a shock wave as the tool for research of behavior of chemically reacting systems at high pressures from 5 gPa up to 30 gPa will allow to establish criteria parameters of shock waves at which there are chemical reactions in a mode of very fast burning, to estimate factor of volumetric thermal expansion of burning products behind shock front, to take into account energy-release due to exothermal reactions at selection of PTM condition equations in the area of pressure up to 30 gPa, to offer methodical approaches by definition of criteria of safety at shock-wave influence on pyrotechnic products.

The role of collaborators in this project will consist in definition of the most interesting pyrotechnic mixtures on the basis of which it is possible to receive a maximum of the information on chemical transformation in PTM behind shock front and their influence on the equation of PTM condition in the area of pressure up to 30 gPa, participation in a formulation of requirements to development of new techniques of research of chemically reacting systems behind shock front parameters definition.

It is anticipated that during this project the key will participate in the conferences and seminars both within the CIS and abroad.


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