Dioxin Formation at Combustion
Kinetics and Mechanism of Dioxin Formation at Combustion. Development of Efficient Methods of Dioxin Formation Suppression.
Tech Area / Field
- CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
- ENV-EHS/Environmental Health and Safety/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russia, Moscow reg., Chernogolovka
- Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russia, Moscow\nRussian Academy of Sciences / Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russia, Moscow
- Fraunhofer Institute Chemische Technologie, Germany, Pfinztal\nUS Environmental Protection Agency / National Risk Management Research Laboratory, USA, NC, Research Triangle Park\nUS Environmental Protection Agency, USA, DC, Washington\nUniversity Ca' Foscari of Venice, Italy, Venice\nUnited States Department of the Interior, USA, MO, Columbia
Project summaryThe objective of the project is to study the mechanism of dioxin formation at combustion and to develop the efficient methods of dioxin destruction.
A generalized term “dioxins” is used for designation of a big class of high-toxic substances like poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls.
Due to the exclusively high toxicity and stability of dioxins even traceable technogenic outbursts can result in their accumulation in hazardous (from the ecological point of view) concentrations. Common combustion processes (municipal and industrial waste incineration, combustion of coal and others) as well as the processes of chemical, metallurgical, paper and pulp industries are serious hazards in terms of dioxin formation.
In spite of a great number of studies, the available data on the kinetics and mechanism of dioxin formation are not reliable because of complexity and variety of the processes yielding dioxins. This impedes the scientific search for methods of these undesirable processes suppression and forecast. Since dioxins are formed in extremely small amounts, their detection is very complicated and expensive; sometimes, it is not exact. Therefore, one more very important problem exists - to improve methods of dioxin detection and analysis.
The project represents a complex of theoretical and experimental studies and technological developments. It assumes:
1. Study of the kinetics and mechanism of dioxin formation in combustion processes in order to elaborate methods of their synthesis suppression.
2. Development of detoxication methods, based on catalytic and other processes of dioxin decomposition.
3. Development of the improved methods of dioxin detection.
4. Creation of prototype appliances for combustion processes to perform combustion without dioxin formation.
As a result of the project implementation:
· new experimental methods for studying the kinetics and mechanism of dioxin formation in combustion processes will be developed;
· the kinetics and mechanism of dioxin formation at combustion of solid fuels in different regimes will be studied;
· methods of dioxin analysis will be improved;
· a kinetic model of dioxin formation will be created;
· the region of dioxin thermodynamic stability will be elucidated;
· methods of dioxin formation forecast will be developed;
· methods of dioxin formation inhibition will be elaborated;
· selective catalysts promoting dioxin destruction will be created;
· methods of dioxin catalytic after-burning will be developed;
· prototype appliances for combustion processes without dioxin formation will be created.
The project is a culmination of theoretical and experimental investigations and engineering developments. It involves the following:
1. Selection, systematization and generalization of the literature data on the kinetics and mechanism of dioxin formation and decomposition.
2. The study of the kinetics and mechanism of dioxin formation in combustion processes and accompanying reactions including quanta-chemical study of dioxins and byproducts of their synthesis and decomposition; search for inhibitors of dioxin formation and substances promoting their conversion to nontoxic substances; creation of macrokinetic models of dioxin formation and destruction; elucidation of the regions of dioxin thermodynamic stability; the study of dioxin formation under conditions corresponding to different technological schemes of solid fuel burning up; elaboration and experimental checking of recommendations to minimize the dioxin yield in technogenic processes upon understanding kinetic regularities of their formation.
3. The quest, synthesis and study of the catalysts decomposing dioxins; the study of the catalytic mechanism of dioxin conversion to nontoxic products; elaboration of recommendations to efficiently use the catalysts of dioxin destruction in technogenic processes.
4. The study of the mechanism of dioxin destruction including: the study of the mechanism of dioxin and their analogs dechlorination and hydrodechlorination; the study of dioxin and other toxic chlorine-organic compounds transformations when heterogeneous and inter-phase catalyses are combined; the development of the methods of decomposition of dioxins and other toxic chlorine-organic compounds using ultrasound and UV-radiation.
5. Improving the methods of analysis of dioxins and products of their detoxification including the design of a sampling appliance for gas mixtures and aerosols used at high temperatures (up to 1000 0C); the development of the method of sample preparation to the chromato-mass-spectral analysis (ChMS); the determination of the amount of toxic congeners of poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in gas mixtures and condensates using the ChMS of high resolution.
6. Issue of recommendations on efficient utilization of the thermal reactor for dioxin detoxification
The scientific significance of the project is consists of the understanding of the chemical processes leading to dioxin formation at combustion in order to obtain the quantitative picture of these processes. The possibility of dioxin formation inhibition, development of selective catalysts of dioxin destruction and improvement of methods of dioxin detection are also the objectives.
The practical significance of the project is determined by its ultimate objective, that is, the development of forecast methods of dioxin formation; methods of dioxin yield minimization; and methods of dioxin destruction. The obtained results will be of interest for many branches of industry in terms of ecological safety.
Several different scientific teams successfully cooperated in past in the activities associated with the development and production of solid propellants and explosives will take part in the project. The potential participants, scientists from the IPCP, IPEE and IOC, are highly qualified researches with wide experience in the field of combustion, thermodynamics of energetic processes, synthesis, thermal stability and compatibility of chemical compounds, kinetics of heterogeneous processes and catalysis.
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