Reducing Car Exhaust Toxicity
A System for Reducing Car Exhaust Toxicity Based on a Hydrogen Additive to the Air-Fuel Mixture
Tech Area / Field
- SAT-SUF/Surface Transportation/Space, Aircraft and Surface Transportation
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
MISIS (Steel and Alloys), Russia, Moscow
- State Enterprise Krasnaya Zvezda, Russia, Moscow
- Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, Uppsala
Project summaryNowadays one of the most real ways of creation of ecological pure car is refinement (improvement) of traditional internal-combustion engines
An attractive approach is to use nontraditional methods of optimizing the work process, which lead to the positive results. For instance, additions of gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen-containing gases to the air–fuel mixture. Addition of hydrogen leads to the intensification of the combustion process and enables the improvement of specific indices and the reduction of internal-combustion engine toxicity.
The major problem of using hydrogen is the availability of the method to produce it in the required amount and store it on board the car. That is why pure-hydrogen cars have not become widespread. The method of using hydrogen additives slightly simplifies the issues of on-board storage of hydrogen, for instance, in cylinders, as smaller amounts are required. Still, a hydrogen refilling infrastructure should be available, so it is desirable to have an autonomous hydrogen source, which would make it possible to produce hydrogen in a pure form or as a mixture with other gases. Modern science disposes a number of way, including those of producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons. The catalytic conversion methods have not been brought to the point of practical applications and require a time effort and financial expenses related to research and technical realization.
Methods of producing hydrogen by electrolysis of water have been well studied. Their disadvantages are a high level of energy consumed and relatively large weight and size. When choosing a hydrogen generator of required capacity all these requirements were taken into account; the method taken as a basis was the method of electrolysis of water in hydrogen tubes, developed by SPEDBE (Special Production Engineering Design Bureau of Electrochemistry with Pilot Plant, Moscow). With respect to energy expenses, this method does not differ from that considered above, but by its weight and size, such an electrolyzer has significant advantages. It is important that this method ensures production of hydrogen under pressure, the value of which can be specified by the customer, and inpidual units can be arranged in an arbitrary order. Hydrogen produced by this method is in a stoichiometric ratio with oxygen; in a vehicle, this will lead to a reduced consumption of air and an intensification of oxidation reactions of combustible components. According to the preliminary data, the cost of a hydrogen generator based on hydrogen tubes technology would not exceed in mass production the cost of the catalytic neutralyzer used for purification of exhaust gas, as there are no expensive rare-earth metals in the design.
Current state of research on the project
A large volume of experimental and calculation works has been carried out. Experiments under conditions of internal-combustion stand tests showed the efficiency of the effect of hydrogen additive on the running of a petrol engine, efficient parameters and toxicity.
Stand tests of a gas-power engine with hydrogen additives to the air–fuel mixture showed a significant decrease of emission of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon oxide in various regimes
A system of decreasing the toxicity of exhaust gases, based on additives of hydrogen produced by the onboard electrolyzer was developed and tested on a vehicle. The tests of a VAZ-21102 motor car in a 4C (E-2) configuration according to the UNECE regulation 83-05 showed that in the startup and warmup regimes the mass exhaust of HC was decreased by 30% on average; CO, 40% at the same level of NOx and CO2 exhaust. Thus, the use of this system on a vehicle corresponding to the Euro II norms, enabled achievin the Euro III toxicity norms.
Besides, the effect of hydrogen additives in the air–fuel mixture on the performance of a diesel engine was studied. As the result, an autonomous exhaust emission reduction system was developed and its experimental testing in the power plant of a city bus IKARUS was carried out. In the idle regime, the smoke of the exhaust was decreased almost twofold.
The aim of the project is to develop an exhaust emission reduction system based on additives of hydrogen-containing gases to the air–fuel mixture. The system shall be easily adaptable to the engine of the vehicle and make it possible to improve the fuel-economy and toxicity characteristics of the power plant with vehicle’s serviceability and safety of running preserved.
Tasks of realization of the project: development and fabrication of new automotive generator of hydrogen-consist gas, its adaptation to car engine and testing in car.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.