Catalysts for Degradation of Harmful Gases
Synthesis and Investigation of the Metal Oxide Catalysts for Photocatalytic Degradation of Harmful Gases Resulted from Terrorist Acts and Man-Caused Catastrophes
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-RED/Remediation and Decontamination/Environment
- CHE-RAD/Photo and Radiation Chemistry/Chemistry
- MAT-SYN/Materials Synthesis and Processing/Materials
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Genisaretskaya S V
Institute of problems of chemical-energetic technologies Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, Altay reg., Biysk
- Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Novosibirsk\nBoreskov Institute of Catalysis, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Akademgorodok\nSiberian Branch of RAS / Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Novosibirsk
- Politecnico di Milano / Space Propulsion Laboratory, Italy, Milan\nINASMET, Spain, San Sebastian\nFraunhofer Institute Chemische Technologie, Germany, Pfinztal\nUniversitat Rovira i Virgili / Dinamic Applied Biotechnology Innovation Centre, Spain, Tarragona
Project summaryScientific background of protection against terrorist acts and struggle against consequences of man-caused catastrophes implies development of detection methods for dangerous substances as well as methods of their neutralization and destruction to reduce the level of hazardous impact on humans and environment. One of the ways for neutralizing the poison C- and B- gases or bacteria in air can be photochemical degradation reactions catalyzed by nanooxides of TiO2, MgO, etc. Such catalysts can be preliminary produced in stationary industrial devices and then be atomized with the help of gas generators. Different way for nanocatalysts generation, which is discussed in this Project, is the nanooxides synthesis by explosion or combustion of special condensed systems. The key issue is that when using the last method the nanocatalysts can be generated in the given point (e.g., in the location of the terrorist attack) and in specified instant of time. The UV-light energy for photochemical reaction can be taken from the natural sun illumination (day time) or be produced by a special design pyrotechnic charge functioning simultaneously with nanooxide catalysts generation.
Within the framework of the Project program the methods have to be elaborated for a synthesis of inpidual substances, capable of detonation or combustion transformations, whose molecules contain Ti atoms. As the examples of mentioned compounds some salts of nitrosemicarbazide and azoles (triazols, tetrazols, etc.) can be considered. These salts can be included into composition of energetic condensed systems (ECS). The application of ECS in the combustion or detonation regimes is expected to produce ultrafine metal oxide. At present time the project authors have got successful experience in this matter. When firing at atmospheric pressure in air the ECS containing the titanium powder, nanosized particles of oxide in catalytically active anatase form have been obtained and tested in photocatalytic reactions.
In order to simulate the processes under discussion some special computer codes will be developed. They will be used for calculating the processes of detonation initiation, combustion of the condensed systems, propagation of the explosion/combustion products in the closed and open compartments, photochemical degradation of the harmful substances on the surface of the metal oxide catalysts. The mathematical simulation is planned to perform on the basis of 3D equations of chemical gas dynamics, diffusion and kinetics.
Timely detecting and identifying the type of poison substances (PS) is the factor that primarily determines the efficiency of countermeasures undertaken. In the Project, detecting toxic substances is conducted on the basis of combined use of lidar and infra-red (IR) spectrometer. The combined method of remote monitoring of the PS content in atmosphere would certainly result in a better quality of the data acquired owing to joint use of the information content of both instruments. Finally, this will make it possible to better trace the process of PS deactivation in space and time.
Within the framework of the Project program it is also planning to conduct studying the effects of potential toxicity of the medium under investigation (components of neutralizing medium + TiO2) for alive objects (mouse, mosquitoes, plants) and to evaluate the extent of ecological hazard and probability of genetic damages.
Participants of the project and their contributions.
Each team will perform specific research whose results have to be used in the work of other teams. The combination of their efforts will yield a synergetic impact on advancing the problem under study. Specifically,
Institute for Problems in Chemical & Energetic Technologies (Biysk) is a developer of technology and producer of metal containing explosives. This institute has well qualified experts in development of solid propellants and civil explosives, synthesis, manufacturing and classification of nanosized oxide, nitrides, and other particles. The Institute has also qualified experts in mathematical simulation of the processes of combustion and detonation of high energy materials, modelling of the temperature and concentration fields, evolution of the combustion products clouds formed upon firing and explosion of the ECS.
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis (Novosibirsk) possesses unique experience and is nationally and internationally recognized in studies on photocatalytic decomposition of toxic compounds over nanoscaled catalysts, development of optimum photocatalysts and reactors for air purification from harmful admixtures and model chemical warfare agents. Specialists of the Institute will determine basic characteristics (pore size distribution, surface area, metal content etc.) of the synthesized catalysts. All catalysts are to be tested in destruction of model compounds that simulate toxic gases.
Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion (Novosibirsk) has internationally recognized expertise in studies of ignition and combustion of condensed systems, formation and evolution of nanoparticles – products of combustion of metal and polymers. In the Institute, advanced approach has been designed and successfully developed for total sampling the combustion products and subsequent size distribution and chemical analyses.
Institute of Atmospheric Optics (Tomsk) has more than 30-year experience in studying the optical properties of the atmosphere and in developing optical methods for the remote monitoring of the environment. The Institute is the acknowledged leader in the development of lidar technologies for atmospheric studies both in Russia and abroad.
The following results are expected to derive while performing this applied research work:
- Elaborate the methods for synthesis of Ti containing energetic materials, which are able to explode or burn with formation of catalytically active TiO2 nanoparticles.
- Investigate physicochemical properties of synthesized ECS and elaborate technology of fabricating the combustible mixtures and charges on their basis.
- Investigate the mechanisms of explosion and combustion of fabricated mixtures, formulate the mathematical models and optimized the processes of the explosion or combustion driven synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles.
- Obtain unique experimental data on catalytic activity of nanosized metal-oxide catalysts, synthesized in aerosol form by explosion and combustion of ECS, in the reactions of destruction of toxic compounds.
- Elaborate 3D mathematical models for description of the processes of formation and propagation of the ECS explosion or combustion products clouds and of the processes of TiO2 particles interaction with the PS.
- Study spectroscopic properties of the simulators of PS in a wide spectral range and compile databases of the PS absorption spectra in the UV, visible, and near IR regions, along with similar databases on Raman and fluorescence spectra of the PS.
- Develop the techniques and instrumental means for remote monitoring of the PS deactivation based on a combined use of lidar and IR-spectrometry methods.
- Estimate the effects of TiO2 action using the cytogenetic, ontogenetic and physiological approaches. Elaborate physiologically substantiated recommendations on diminishing the ecological risks.
- Formulate the recommendations on development of technology for deactivation of atmospheric clouds containing gaseous or aerosol contaminants.
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