Conservation and Use of Germplasm of Wild Flora
Conservation and Use of Germplasm of Kyrgyzstan’s Wild Flora for Management of Genetic-Selectional and Economical Tasks
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-VTH/Vaccines and Theraupetics/Agriculture
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Weaver L M
National Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan / Biotechnology Institution, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- The State University of New Jersey RUTGERS / Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment / Center for Agriculture and the Environment, Foran Hall, Cook College, USA, NJ, New Brunswick\nRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK, Kew\nOrnamental Plant Germplasm Center, USA, OH, Columbus
Project summaryKyrgyzstan is one of the world centers of the origin of culture plants. The floral variety was conditioned by many factors, basic of which is geographical location in mountainous systems of Tian Shan and Pamir Alay (500-5,000 meters above sea level) at the crossroad of migration routes of different floras.
In the country there is significantly noteworthy taxonomic variety – 4,000 species of high plants and high degree of endemism, along with increasing number of those included into the of lists rare and disappearing species (Golovkova, Chubarova, 1988). Species variety of flora in Kyrgyzstan corresponds with 50% of structure of Central Asia, which are species – about 70% and almost 90% are a set of families (Ionov et al., 1992). The flora of Kyrgyzstan is rich not only with variety of species, but also with number of useful plants. According to preliminary data there are more then 1,600 species of them, 550 of them – medical alkaloid and poisonous plants are totaled.
In such extremely various palette of vegetation plant resources are used poorly in the light of insufficient research and absence of the appropriate technologies. In the light of the above-mentioned facts, there is a problem of protection in nature (in situ), rational use, preservation and reproduction of wild flora. The creation of germplasm bank is the most valuable part of the strategy of preservation of a biopersity, representing a potential resource for selection high-efficiency and disease-resist cultural species, decorative, medicinal and other forms. Along with creation of seed bank it is necessary to use methods of plant tissue culture as the most progressive approach to protection of major biological objects. Meristem culture of plants helps accelerate selection works, health of planting material and reception in culture biological active substances, that allowed to not depend on decreasing amount of vegetative nature raw material many manufactures, and in particular, pharmaceutical industry. It is known, that only in USA total cost of medicines produced from plant originally raw materials exceed 3 billion dollars (Mayers, 1983). Use as objects of plants having a rich spectrum of secondary substances and long since used in traditional and official medicine, creates conditions for reception of tissue culture having high biosynthetic potentialities.
In Kyrgyz Republic “Project of strategy and plan of actions on preservation of a biopersity” (Bishkek, 1998) developed by the Environment Protection Ministry one of the major tasks is the creation of a genetic databank of biological objects. However, the practical works in that direction, in which they are offered in the present project, will not be carried out.
The research and practical development in the fields of biotechnology, including cell biology (reception of the healed planting material, high productive stocks, optimization of cultivating conditions, reception of clones of plant tissue culture and double, with pathogen, cultures, etc.), carried out by us for years in collaboration with Institute of Plant Physiology of Russian Academy of Science can serve as a good basis for performing purpose and tasks of the project. The highly skilled experts – physiologists and biochemists, geobotanics, florists, for realization of GIS-researches – geophysics, cartographers, geologists are involved into performance of the project. Besides the pharmacologists, technologists, chemists, physicians will take part in the project as well.
The purpose of the project – development of methods of preservation and rational use of a biopersity of vegetative resources through creation of genetic databank (germplasm) – collection of a seed material and tissue culture and computer information database and GIS-system base.
During performance of the project the following tasks will be made:
1. The inventory of natural vegetative resources of wild flora is carried out and the estimation of condition of endemic, rare and disappearing, and also especially economically valuable species of plants in ecosystems of Kyrgyzstan:
– are revealed and are specified areas of distribution of the above-stated groups of plants;
– the recommendations for protection of these plants in nature are offered.
2. Carrying out mapping areas of distribution endemic, rare and disappearing and also especially economically of valuable plants with use of GIS-methods:
– the estimation of modern conditions of researched plants in ecosystem with use of old databases and drawing up new is given;
– the map of areas distribution of the above-stated plants with use GPS and remote aero- and space photos is made.
3. The practical importance of the selected groups of plant is determined:
– the data of the biochemical analyses on the contents biologically active substances are received;
– the decorative species, most valuable to selection works, of plants are selected.
4. The technology of reception of plant tissue (in vitro) is developed:
– the culture medium and of cultivating conditions are selected;
– the data on accumulation biologically active substances in plant tissue culture of researched plants are received.
5. The genetic bank of a most valuable plants selected from wild flora is generated:
– the cryogenic bank of a seed material is created;
– the cryogenic bank of tissue culture is created.
As an outcome of performance of the project the inventory will be carried out and the estimation of a condition of endemic, rare and disappearing and also especially economic valuable species of wild flora is given, and the database in GIS-system is created. The technologies of preservation of a genetic material of the unique vegetative forms and methods of their practical application will be developed.
The received outcome can be used in national and international practice of genetic selection works, and also in pharmacology, medicine, cosmetic and other practical branches of a science and industry.
During performance of the project the realization of works with use field (expeditional), laboratory (experimental), practical and GIS methods is provided.
The project corresponds to the purposes and tasks of ISTC, as in its performance the experts before connected to a defense technique, technology and industry are involved. The researches under the project are directed on the decision of economic and social tasks, namely, development of technologies of reception of production and with preservation of a biopersity – genetic fund of endemic, rare and disappearing, and also especially of valuable economic species of plants.
Within the framework of the project the cooperation with foreign collaborators is supposed: on information interchange during performance of the project, joint discussions of results of researches, realization of seminars and conferences.
The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.
ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.