Microwave Elimination f Freons in the Atmosphere
Designing the Technology of Atmosphere Cleaning from Ozonedestroing Freons in Continuous Microwave Under Critical Discharges
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-APC/Air Pollution and Control/Environment
3 Approved without Funding
MRTI (Radio Techniques), Russia, Moscow
- AO "Mintz Radio-Technical Institute", Russia, Moscow
Project summaryIn view of ecologically unacceptable exhausting of the ozone layer the countries joining Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol (including Russia) start the curtailing of the ozone-destroying freons production.
Nevertheless the enormous mass of the industrial freons accumulated in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (more than 20 Mt) is able to cause during it's long lifetime (50 - 100 years) the catastrophic from the ecological point of view reduction of the ozone layer. The problem of the removal of the ozone-destroying freons released in the atmosphere is important to the same extent as one of the freone production curtailing.
The GPI, MRTI, API laboratory experiments on the freone destruction with the aid of discharges excited by the powerful UHF radiation (wavelength 8.5 - 0.35 cm) and the theoretical analysis have shown that the freone destruction in the microwave discharge can be fulfilled with high efficiency. Measurements have manifested the possibility of achievement of acceptable utilization efficiency in UHF discharge for the freone-air mixture with the natural specific density. The experimental investigation of the microwave discharges in GPI, API, MRTI has displayed that in air in the presence of initiators the streamer discharge can arise at strength of the microwave electric field much less than the critical one to exist independently of initiators.
This result cuts down in decisive way the requirements for the power and aerial system of the radiation equipment giving way to the practical solution of the problem of the atmosphere cleaning from the freons stored in it through their crushing in the field of the directed UHF radiation of the groundbased stations
The cleaning scheme being proposed
By the cleaning station start UHF discharge is lighted at height up to 15 km with the aid of the initiators (for example the resonance wire dipoles to be scattered in the interaction area before the installation switching on). Arising and being maintained continuously the streamer discharge fill all the cross-section of the UHF radiation beam at height depending on the beam intensity. The intensity modulation and the beam direction scanning give the possibility of processing of volume about 500 km3. The preliminary estimations show that the time of such volume processing should be several hours (which is of the same order as the time of the convective exchange in the stratosphere providing the replacement of the processed air). Several tens installations with the total power of 20 GW order situated in the Earth regions corresponding to the maximum freone density are able within the 5 - 10 years to run through their active areas the main mass of air driven by wind and diminish the contents of freons in atmosphere to the ecologically acceptable level.
The estimations show that the excitation of the initiated undercritical discharge is accessible for the powerful radars in particular working radar "Don". This fact has been assumed as the base of the Project aimed to design the cleaning process technology.
The Project realization supposes the following stages:
1. Laboratory experiment on the installation being available in MRTI: the specification of the minimum intensity level required for the undercritical microwave discharge in streamer form to arise and develop; the investigation of dynamics of the freons decomposition in the microwave undercritical streamer discharge; ascertaining of requirements for the parameters of the initiators of the undercritical microwave discharge;
2. The elaboration of the program of the experiment on "Don" radar and it's physical substantiation in the following items: the methods of the initiated discharge excitation at the height of interest; the initiators transport and scattering at height required for the initial lighting of the discharge; methods of the cleaning efficiency diagnostics; etc.
3. Experiment on "Don" radar intended for: lighting of the undercritical discharge; determination of the threshold of the discharge independent existence after the initiation; mastering of the methods of the initiated discharge excitation at height of interest; mastering of the procedure of the initiators initial supply and scattering at height required for the undercritical discharge initiation; investigation of the secondary effects;
4. The project elaboration of the typical installation for the microwave atmosphere cleaning from freons.
The potential role of the foreign collaborators
It is supposed that Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom) represented by Dr. R. Bingham and his colleagues will influence substantially the project realization on all stages. The collaboration will consist in quarterly exchange of the research results for analysis and discussion, the preparation of the yearly and final project reports.
The collaboration with Rutherford Appleton laboratory should serve researches from Russia and UK to progress in solving of this valuable ecological problem.
Research Institutes, Commercial firms, Companies, Organizations, Private experts from US, European Union, Japan and Sweden, Finland and Norway are invited to participate in the Project as collaborators.
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