Deposition of Nanostuctured Coatings
Deposition of Nanostuctured Coatings by Friction Cladding Method for Improving Corrosion and Heat Resistance of Steel Parts
Tech Area / Field
3 Approved without Funding
MISIS (Steel and Alloys), Russia, Moscow
- State Enterprise Krasnaya Zvezda, Russia, Moscow
- "Hatch" Corp., Canada, ON, Mississauga\nInstitut National Polytechniques de Lorraine / Laboratoire de Science des Surfaces, France, Nancy
Project summaryThe problem of increasing the corrosion and heat resistance of machine components and parts operated under conditions of high temperatures and aggressive media is constantly posed by scientists and practical engineers in all spheres of production activities and in everyday life. Each stage of development witnesses technologies corresponding to the current level. Breakthroughs in the field of efficient surface protection, as in other fields, are associated with the use of nanotechnologies.
The subject of the present project is the development of a process for protection of working surfaces operated at elevated temperatures and in aggressive media by applying nanocomposite coatings under conditions of special surface plastic deformation. A tool – a rotated metal disc brush (RMB) in contact simultaneously with the component part and donor material – cuts particles of the donor, transfers them onto the treated part and forms a coating. In the process of multiple impacts and frictions whereby the flexible elements of the RMB interact with the surface, particles in the surface are dispersed to a nanosize. Strong bonds to form a dense coating strongly adhering to the surface arise between dissimilar materials of the coating as the result of mechanical activation of the surface of nanoparticles.
The most significant feature of this project is a possibility of producing multicomponent coatings from metals and nonmetals, consolidation of which is impossible in most other cases. To enable this, the bulk of the donor is designed to consist of plates of required materials, which should be present in the coating. This aspect makes it possible to transfer a substance and to form a compact coating from dissimilar materials, for instance, from metals that possess a high corrosion and heat resistance and ceramics that are transferred from a composite plate consisting of ceramic nanoparticles in a soft binder. Herewith, the coating possesses the properties provided for by the fact that it contains pure metals and, simultaneously, their compounds formed in the application process and in operation. The effect is enhanced by the presence of nanosize ceramic particles.
An essential fact is also that, unlike other methods, this method is ecologically safe, as it does not use chemically active reagents contaminating the environment. The process does not require large energy consumption as it is energy-saving, and does not need any sophisticated specialized equipment and thermal effects to be used, either. As the result, the final structure and properties within the bulk of the component part remain as they were at the previous stages of treatment.
The new class of coatings are extremely broadly multipurpose coatings; at a high corrosion and heat resistance, they are highly wear-resistant. For instance, an aluminium–nickel coating at 800°C increases the heat resistance of steel 9–12-fold; aluminium–zinc coatings with different Al and Zn ratios increase the resistance of steel in humid marine atmosphere 11–16-fold. Depending on their composition, the microhardness of coatings varies from 1,100 MPa up to 14,000 MPa.
The functional properties of nanocomposite coatings are determined by a large number of significant factors, such as intensive plastic deformation, temperature conditions, the nature and structure of the materials of a coating and of a component part, and many others. A high stochasticity of the process complicates the search for an optimal technology of coating deposition. The use of synergetic methodology for the analysis of the mechanical behaviour of materials, which studies the processes of self-organization of structures in systems far from equilibrium makes it possible to determine the relationship between the properties, structure and technology of coating formation without attracting large-scale experiments. These dependences are the subject of detailed studies, which are the major element of this project.
Researchers and experts representing the organizations that participate in the project have many years of experience in research into and development of novel nanocomposite materials of various compositions and purposes. Their works are widely known in Russia and abroad. This is indicative of a high scientific level of the team of project’s executants and guarantees the success of the project.
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