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Accelerating Structure for Linear Accelerator


Development and Manufacture of a Preproduction Model of ALVAREZ-Type Accelerating Structure for a “Warm Part” of Linear H- Ion Accelerator to be Installed and Tested as a Component of LINAC-4 in CERN

Tech Area / Field

  • PHY-PFA/Particles, Fields and Accelerator Physics/Physics

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • ITEF (ITEP), Russia, Moscow


  • CERN / European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Switzerland, Geneva

Project summary

The main project goals are as follows:
  1. Development and production of accelerating structures with drift tubes (DTL) of Alvarez type;
  2. Manufacture of working prototype structures of sections 1, 2 and 3 in Linac4;
  3. Delivery of prototype structures of sections to CERN to carry out tuning and testing at full capacity operation.


The increasing need of experimental physics in intense fluxes of secondary particles (muons) can be satisfied by using high-current beams of proton accelerators. A superconducting proton linear accelerator (SPL) ensuring average beam power of about 4 MW at the energy of 5 GeV is being developed at CERN as a potential version of the initial part of proton driver for a neutrino factory and a EURISOL facility. The SPL can also be used to upgrade the LHC collider in the project in order to generate ion beams. The SPL is composed of a source of H- ions, a section with accelerating structure of RFQ type, an accelerator using DTL drift tubes, separate cavity sections using CCDTL structures and superconducting sections.

To achieve the design parameters in Linac4, an accelerator “warm part” segment with drift tubes DTL shall ensure efficient acceleration of proton beams with the 40 mA current - from 3 MeV to 50 MeV at the output - with low losses of particles, effective cooling and stable long-term operation. The beam shall be coherent with the subsequent CCDTL sections. The manufacturing of such prototypes of Alvarez-type accelerating sections for Linac4 “warm part” will be based on the development of technologies mastered by VNIIEF and ITEP during the development of the section prototype fulfilled within the framework of the ISTC project 2888.

Scope of works

The goal of the project is to develop and manufacture basic elements of the “warm part” of Linac4 accelerating sections 1, 2, 3 with drift tubes DTL.

The project basic have the following form:

Task 1

Development of design documentation for the accelerating sections.

Task 2

Electro-dynamic and thermal physics analyses of accelerating sections at a stage of design and technological elaboration.

Task 3

Procurement of materials, tools and equipment.

Task 4

Development of technology and manufacture of quadrupole lenses.

Task 5

Development of technology and manufacture of accelerating sections.

Task 6

Development of technology and execution of works on electroplating of accelerating section cases.

Task 7

Testing of drift tubes and accelerating sections. Magnetic measurements on drift tubes.

Task 8

Delivery of accelerating sections to CERN and acceptance tests at CERN.

Competence of Project participants

For several decades the All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF, Sarov) performed intense investigations in the field of accelerator engineering. Within this period it accumulated wide experience in the production and operation of several types of accelerators: high-current pulsed, cyclic, and resonant linear accelerators, and at their home-base compound nuclear-physics and irradiating accelerator complexes, some of which having no analogues in the world. VNIIEF has highly qualified specialists in the field of accelerator physics and technology (theoreticians and computing engineers, designers, technologists, experimenters); the required equipment and software needed to perform design works is available; there are experimental test-benches to elaborate engineering solutions and a pilot factory to produce accelerator components. VNIIEF has experience in collaborating with scientists from various institutes including foreign ones when participating in realization of large programs, e.g. VNIIEF participated in the development of detector systems within the framework of the ALICE experiment at CERN.

The Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) is a world-renowned center in the field of linear ion accelerators. It demonstrated scientific leadership in major projects realized in the former USSR, e.g. with the accelerators I-2, I-100 (Protvino) and the Moscow meson factory (Troitsk). ITEP collaborates successfully with several leading accelerator centers in Europe (e.g. GSI, INFN-LNL) and in the USA (ANL, BNL) in the area of linear accelerator development and start-up and has a group of high-level specialists in this field. All required experimental installations that are needed to ensure realization of the project goals are available in the Institute.

The foreign collaboratorthe European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN, Geneva) - will participate in this project with in kind (materials) and financial contributions. It defines the conditions in which the structures shall operate including parameters of beam, RF environment, cooling water supply, geometric envelope, etc. It will assist in realization of the project goals and ensure interaction with the corresponding experts in the field of accelerator engineering. CERN is interested in the structure development and manufacture; it will therefore closely follow development and production processes. CERN will test the accelerating sections with nominal RF power and beam passage.

Expected results

The project is aimed at technology development that shall be applied at producing prototypes of accelerating sections and will be tested on the operating accelerators in CERN. The participation in the project will enable ITEP and VNIIEF scientists to create and test accelerator structures using state-of-the-art technologies.

The following results shall be achieved:

  1. Detailed design of a full-scale prototype accelerating structure with drift tubes equipped with permanent magnet quadrupoles.
  2. Development of drawings and design documentation for the accelerator structure prototypes.
  3. Mastering of new technologies and production of basic elements of accelerator structure prototypes.
  4. Delivery of the working prototype accelerator structures to CERN for RF full power and beam testing.

These results can be used to manufacture linear accelerators in a wide range of practical applications, for example, for transmutation of nuclear waste, in the field of high-current electronics and in medicine.

Meeting ISTC goals and objectives

  1. The work on the project will allow scientists and engineers who were previously involved in weapon activities to reorient their potentials to peaceful works.
  2. The development realized within this project will serve fundamental particle researches at CERN and will therefore be of use for particle scientists studying elementary particles all over the world.
  3. The project will promote integration of VNIIEF and ITEP scientists and engineers in the world-wide science and technology communities through exchange of research results and participation in international conferences.
  4. The technologies developed in the project will find application in any kind of particle accelerators. A growing market in hadron therapy opens prospects for using the project results in this area. The project results are also promising for the engineering fields requiring high precision of production and for vacuum technologies.

Technical approach and methodology

The technologies that are planned to be applied in this project passed the tests within the frames of projects 2888 and 2889 at the development of accelerating structure prototypes. The close interaction between VNIIEF, ITEP and CERN specialists that was realized during the execution of the previous projects will have to be strengthened.

The design documentation is planned to be issued and checking calculations will be performed. Execution drawings will be made for equipment manufacture. It is scheduled to conduct preparations for manufacture and produce prototypes of accelerating sections that will be delivered to CERN to be tested in Linac4.

The total project effort constitutes 47084 person-days.


The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) is an intergovernmental organization connecting scientists from Kazakhstan, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Georgia with their peers and research organizations in the EU, Japan, Republic of Korea, Norway and the United States.


ISTC facilitates international science projects and assists the global scientific and business community to source and engage with CIS and Georgian institutes that develop or possess an excellence of scientific know-how.

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