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Nuclear Data Reactions Data Base for Internet


The Integrated Relational Database of the Nuclear Data Reaction References in the Internet Created on the Base of CINDA, EXFOR Libraries and Other Sources

Tech Area / Field

  • FIR-NOT/Nuclear and Other Technical Data/Fission Reactors
  • INF-COM/High Performance Computing and Networking/Information and Communications

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Supporting institutes

  • Moscow State University / Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia, Moscow\nKurchatov Research Center, Russia, Moscow


  • Brookhaven National Laboratory / National Nuclear Data Center, USA, NY, Upton\nJapan Atomic Energy Research Institute / Nuclear Data Center, Japan, Ibaraki

Project summary

For a long time, the interest of the world’s community in nuclear data was limited mainly to data on neutron-induced reactions primarily for use in reactors design and weapon technologies. Therefore, the earliest data compilations and evaluations focused on neutron-induced reactions covering the range of energy up to about 20 MeV. The nuclear reaction data compilations are exchanged among the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers (NRDC) [1] using the EXFOR format [2]; the international evaluated nuclear data files are exchanged in the ENDF format [3].

In recent years, the growth of interest in reactions induced by charged particles, photons, and heavy ions in a wide energy range up to 1 GeV has been driven by problems of astrophysics (study of burning processes occurring in stars, etc.), thermonuclear power, transmutation of radioactive wastes, development of methods of nondestructive testing, medical diagnostic testing, ecological monitoring, the influence of cosmic rays on conditions of cosmic flights, etc. The EXFOR and ENDF formats have been expanded to accommodate all nuclear reaction data.

Any study begins, as a rule, from a search of the published literature. At present, there exist several large international bibliographic computer files containing detailed information referring to experimental and evaluated nuclear data (nuclear reactions, nuclear structure and decay characteristics). These libraries facilitate a search of literature in different subject areas. The CINDA (Computerized Index of Neutron Data) [4] and NSR (Nuclear Science References) [5] files are currently exchanged among the NRDC and are available from many of the member centers.

CINDA is a complete set of bibliographic references and an index to the experimental (EXFOR) and evaluated (ENDF) databases for reactions induced by neutrons. The references are blocked for a given experiment and a given target nucleus and reaction, i.e., two or more references referring to the same data are linked by a block identification.

NSR, which was Nuclear Structure References until the 1990’s when its name was changed to Nuclear Science References, is a bibliography for information on low and intermediate energy nuclear physics. It is approximately complete for published references to nuclear structure and decay data in the period from 1910 to the present. However, for older nuclear reaction references it is much less complete. The references in NSR are not blocked.

Since the 1970’s, the CINDA and NSR libraries were structured as separate hierarchical DBMS [6] databases installed on VAX computer using the in the VMS operating system [7]. This greatly facilitated the work of specialists with data. The databases were implemented on both the IAEA and NNDC computers [8] and were systematically supplemented and distributed through the network of nuclear data centers. Due to the appearance and growth of Internet, the databases became available at working stations of specialists throughout the world.

In 1996, the Photonuclear Index (PNI) was implemented as a database of reference and bibliographic data on papers in the area of electromagnetic interactions (photo- and electronuclear reactions, reactions of radiative capture) published since 1955 [9]. There have also been in the past several short-lived attempts at bibliographic libraries on charged-particle reactions, including the McGowen index [10] and the Bibliography of Integral Charged-Particle Nuclear Data (CPBib) [ 11].

The success of scientific research and promising developments in many technologies depends on the availability of up-to-date data on fundamental nuclear reactions properties. The existing libraries have a number of disadvantages:

– each of computer libraries listed above is not complete;

– the library contains no data on reactions under the heavy ions action;
– data on reactions under the action of charged particles, photons are mostly presented only in a narrow range of energy (up to 30 MeV);
– all libraries contain a significant number of repeats what appreciably hampers solving of any problem related to the full search of data.

These disadvantages, the wide use of personnel computers and the growth of their capabilities, and the use of the World Wide Web, led to an interest in restructuring of the architecture of the existing databases.

At a Workshop on Relational Database and Java Technologies for Nuclear Data, held at Brookhaven National Laboratory in September 2000, and attended by representatives from many of the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers, the decision was made to create an integrated database of nuclear reaction data, that is, experimental, evaluated, and bibliographic data [12]. Work has already begun on the design and creation of the new database. As part of the new design, the NSR identifier (key number) will be used to identify a reference, and eventually, to link it to NSR.

A proposal for a new bibliographic data file (CINDX4), which contains an index to literature on experimental and evaluated data for all nuclear reactions, was proposed and accepted by the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers at a meeting in Vienna in 2001; a work plan was developed for future cooperation in establishing this database at a meeting in Paris in 2002.

In order to create the new integrated relational base of reference nuclear reactions, a large effort is required for:

– reformatting of data from the CINDA, PNI, and CPBib libraries;

– extracting references from EXFOR;
– selecting data from NSR;
– checking and blocking the references from different sources;
– entering missing references from the nuclear science literature.

This work can be performed only by joint efforts of world’s community of Nuclear Data Centers. The reformatting of the CINDA neutron-induced reaction bibliography from the old format CINDA and the extraction of data from EXFOR is being undertaken by a joint effort of IAEA Nuclear Data Section and U.S. National Center for Nuclear Data. This project is aimed at completing the remaining tasks.

Thus, the objective of the present project is to take part in joint efforts in integrated relational data base creation, namely, filling it with data from the libraries PCBib, of corresponding sections of NSR library, specialized library PNI, science and engineering magazines and other similar information sources as well as implementation of work on its testing.

In the course of the project, the following objectives will be fulfilled:

1. Conversion of references from the PNI format to the CINDX4 format.

2. Conversion of data from the CPBib to the new format.
3. Checking and adding missing information for references extracted from EXFOR.
4. Blocking references from the different sources.
5. Adding missing references for papers published in the last 40 years that are missing from the completed database.
6. Assisting in the addition to NSR of references given in the completed database that are not found in NSR.

For all of the above items, after data are automatically reformatted, they will be fully checked for duplications and formatting errors.

The results of this project will allow the completion of the united bibliographic system that:

– supports fundamental and applied studies on physics of nuclear reactions of low and average energies, as well as a wide range of research in other fields of science and engineering using nuclear reactions data;

– assists nuclear data evaluators with locating the experimental data;
– helps compilers avoid duplication of experimental data sets.

The developed system will be available on the Web sites of Nuclear Data Centers.


1. The Nuclear Data Centers Network, IAEA(NDS)-401 (May 1999). Edited by V. Pronyaev.

2. EXFOR Systems Manual, BNL-NCS-63330-04/01 (April 2001). Compiled and edited by V. McLane.
3. ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures, BNL-NCS-44945-01/04 Rev (April 2001). Edited by V. McLane.
4. CINDA Coding Manual (February 1990). Revised by S.Webster.
5. S. Ramavatarum, C.L. Dunford, Nuclear Science References Coding Manual, BNL-NCS-51800, Rev. 0896 (1996).
6. Digital Equipment Corporation. DBMS description. 1981.
7. Digital Equipment Corporation. VAX User’s Guide, 1981.
8. Online Nuclear Data Service, IAEA-NDS-150, Rev. 99/3 (March 1999). Written by C.L. Dunford and T.W. Burrows.
9. V.V.Varlamov, V.V.Sapunenko, M.E.Stepanov. Photonuclear data 1976 - 1995. Handbook. Moscow University publishing house, -M., 1996.
10. F.K. McGowen, M.T. Milner, Reaction List for Charged-Particle-Induced Reactions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 1 (1976). Last of a series published from 1972-1976.
11. T.W. Burrows et al., Integral Charged-Particle Bibliography, BNL-NCS-50640. Four editions plus supplements published 1977-1981.
12. S. Dunaeva, V. McLane, V. Zerkin, Nuclear Reaction Database. Unpublished Report, October 6, 2001.


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