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Synthesis of Nanoparticles of Metals and Metal-Organic Compounds in Supercritical Water


Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanoparticles of Metals, Metal Oxides and Metal-Organic Compounds in Supercritical Water

Tech Area / Field

  • CHE-IND/Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering/Chemistry
  • ENV-WPC/Water Pollution and Control/Environment

3 Approved without Funding

Registration date

Leading Institute
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Akademgorodok


  • Univesidad de Cadiz / Chemical Engineering and Food Technology Department, Spain, Cadiz\nUniversity of Michigan / Colledge of Engeneering / Department of Chemical Engineering, USA, MI, Ann Arbor\nPukyong National University, Korea, Busan\nSogang University, Korea, Seoul\nNational Institute of Chemistry, Slovenia, Ljublana\nTohoku University / WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Japan, Sendai\nUniversity of Illinois / Department of BioEngineering, USA, IL, Chicago\nUniversity of Wyoming / Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, USA, WY, Laramie\nGeorgia Institute of Technology / School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, USA, GA, Atlanta\nValladolid University, Spain, Valladolid

Project summary

Nanoparticles and nanostructural materials are of particular interest in terms of their application in sensors and electronic devices, catalysis, pharmaceutical industry, medicine, in the production of new materials and chemicals. Nanostructured materials show unusual properties that differ from the properties of their bulky analogs. Of the known and promising methods of nanoparticles synthesis, formation and modification, the methods using supercritical fluids (SCF), in particular, supercritical water (SCW) stand out now.

These methods provide great opportunities for synthesis and formation of nanoparticles and nanomaterials, for purposeful control over the properties of materials being formed. This makes necessary to perform fundamental and applied studies aimed at further investigation of the entire set of phenomena in question and at practical implementation of the developed methods and technologies.

The Project is aimed at solving the integrated problems of (in)organic and physical chemistry including synthesis and modification of nanoparticles of metals, metal oxides, metal-organic compounds with the use of supercritical fluids, in particular water and CO2; property evaluation of nanoparticles depending on the reaction conditions, co-solvents introduced and micronization technique; studying the agglomeration effects and reactivity of supercritical fluids in new syntheses of (in)organic materials using experimental and theoretical methods. The proposed studies will produce new knowledge in this field, which will be used to develop methods and technologies for the synthesis of a wide assortment of nanosized (in)organic and composite materials.

Laboratory experimental studies, mathematical modeling and thermodynamic calculations will be used as the main instruments to implement the Project tasks.

Research program of the Project includes the following items:

1. Synthesis and property evaluation of nanoparticles of inorganic and composite materials.

Hydrothermal synthesis of nano-sized particles of inorganic materials (metals M (Ni, Ru, Pt, Pd, Ga, Ru-Pt, Ru-Pd, Ho, etc.), metal oxides (LiMOn, NiMOn, FeMOn, MOn,M1M2On)) and metal-organic compounds of HnСm-М type in flow reactors and autoclaves will be used for the production of novel catalysts for various chemical processes, catalytically active surfaces for micro-reactor and microelectrode technologies, reagents for organic syntheses and bactericides production, etc. Among special goals of the Project are experimental studies on the single-step SCW synthesis of Li-containing complex metal oxides (i.e., LiMOn) and similar compounds. The work includes the studies of physicochemical properties of the synthesized complex metal-organic compounds depending on the nature of the used ligands and metals. Experimental studies will be aimed at synthesizing the 10-100 nm particles with a narrow size distribution.

2. Statistical, thermodynamic and mathematical modeling of the processes of solid nanoparticles synthesis with the use of supercritical solvent.

One of the main problems of the Project includes the development of new approaches and models for calculation of the reaction conditions providing synthesis of nanoparticles with desired properties, and elaboration of thermodynamic models adequately describing the formation of a solid phase of various chemical compositions. Thermodynamic calculation of the state of reaction mixture will help to localize the critical points of a multi-component mixture and thus determine the region of optimal parameters for the mixture in supercritical conditions that precede the particles formation.

The Project aims also to create the original hydrodynamic models describing the processes of supercritical mixture extension, formation of the solid phase particles, and their agglomeration. Particular attention is paid to the development of mathematical models that can explain and quantitatively describe the effect of the solvent pressure (density) on the apparent rates of nanoparticle formation.

Statistical modeling based on the Monte-Carlo methods will allow us to study structural rearrangements of nanoparticles on clean surfaces accompanied by the formation of nanocluster systems, and the effect of porous substrate structure on the formation of nanoparticle layers over these substrates.

3. Development of a pilot setup for the synthesis of nanoparticles and materials on their base.

The proposed studies, being a continuation of the work performed by the team, will pioneer researches on some problems in the world.

The Project participants have rich experience in applied research and successful collaboration with other institutions in many countries of the world. They have studied the reactivity of some supercritical fluids in numerous chemical reactions and the pressure effects on chemical reaction rate, developed programs and algorithms for calculating the gas-liquid phase diagrams. The team has created and operates now the first Russian stationary SCWO plant intended for the oxidation of energetic and toxic organic compounds.

The Project entirely complies with the ISTC aims and goals; it is aimed at solving national and international R&D problems and facilitates international integration of scientists and specialists in the field. The role of foreign collaborators in implementation of the proposed Project is of high importance, first, as experts, and second, as partners having experience and knowledge in the field necessary for efficient accomplishment of the Project tasks. The Project collaborators have the opportunity to participate in joint research work and periodically monitor progress of the work.


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